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Soft Matter , 27 DOI: Liquid Crystal Polymers. Optionally, there may be present IV a surfactant. Preferably the surfactant is present in the amount of 1 to 50 wt. The surfactant can be a nonionic, cationic, anionic, or a mixture of such surfactants. Most preferred are organic nonionic surfactants, but the nonionic surfactant can be one containing silicon atoms. Fatty alcohol ethoxylates typically contain the characteristic group - OCH2CH2 cOH which is attached to fatty hydrocarbon residue R2 which contains about eight to about twenty carbon atoms, such as lauryl C12 , cetyl C16 and stearyl C While the value of "c" may range from 1 to about , its value is typically in the range of 2 to Some examples of suitable nonionic surfactants are polyoxyethylene 4 lauryl ether, polyoxyethylene 5 lauryl ether, polyoxyethylene 23 lauryl ether, polyoxyethylene 2 cetyl ether, polyoxyethylene 10 cetyl ether, polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl ether, polyoxyethylene 2 stearyl ether, polyoxyethylene 10 stearyl ether, polyoxyethylene 20 stearyl ether, polyoxyethylene 21 stearyl ether, polyoxyethylene stearyl ether, polyoxyethylene 2 oleyl ether, and polyoxyethylene 10 oleyl ether.
It has an HLB of about Representative quaternary ammonium salts are dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide DTAB , didodecyldimethyl ammonium bromide, dihexadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride, dihexadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide, dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride, dieicosyldimethyl ammonium chloride, didocosyldimethyl ammonium chloride, dicoconutdimethyl ammonium chloride, ditallowdimethyl ammonium chloride, and ditallowdimethyl ammonium bromide.
Examples of anionic surfactants include sulfonic acids and their salt derivatives; alkali metal sulfosuccinates; sulfonated glyceryl esters of fatty acids such as sulfonated monoglycerides of coconut oil acids; salts of sulfonated monovalent alcohol esters such as sodium oleyl isothionate; amides of amino sulfonic acids such as the sodium salt of oleyl methyl tauride; sulfonated products of fatty acid nitriles such as palmitonitrile sulfonate; sulfonated aromatic hydrocarbons such as sodium alpha-naphthalene monosulfonate; condensation products of naphthalene sulfonic acids with formaldehyde; sodium octahydro anthracene sulfonate; alkali metal alkyl sulfates such as sodium lauryl dodecyl sulfate CH3 CH2 11OSO3Na; ether sulfates having alkyl groups of eight or more carbon atoms; and alkylaryl sulfonates having one or more alkyl groups of eight or more carbon atoms.
Optionally, there may be present V an active ingredient. Active ingredients useful herein include, but are not limited to fragrances, sunscreens i. Vitamins and drugs which can be used are described in , herein incorporated by reference for its teaching of these actives.
These active ingredients may be further exemplified by vitamin C, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, niacin, folic acid, biotin, and pantothenic acid. Fragrances may be exemplified by, but not limited to, perfume ketones and perfume aldehydes. Preferably, the perfume aldehyde is selected for its odor character from adoxal; anisic aldehyde; cymal; ethyl vanillin; florhydral; helional; heliotropin; hydroxycitronellal; koavone; lauric aldehyde; lyral; methyl nonyl acetaldehyde; P.
Bucinal, lyral, cymal, methyl nonyl acetaldehyde, hexanal, transhexenal, and mixture thereof. In the above list of perfume ingredients, some are commercial names conventionally known to one skilled in the art, and also includes isomers. Such isomers are also suitable for use in the present invention. These active ingredients are described in U. Optionally, there may be present a compound VI that introduces functional groups, F, into the silicone elastomer "functional compound" wherein F is as described above.
The functional compound may be silicone, organic. It may be unreactive resulting in functionality that is in the silicone elastomer composition. The functional compound can be added before, during or after the crosslinking reaction. Combinations of functional compounds can be used or combinations of functionality may be used so long as the functional compound does not substantially interfere with the crosslinking chemistry.
No special equipment or processing conditions are generally required. Heat and agitation may be applied to facilitate the crosslinking reaction. Simple propeller mixers, turbine-type mixers, Brookfield counter-rotating mixers, or homogenizing mixers may be used. Often, simple hand shaking is sufficient.
Optional components and additional diluents may be added before, during or after the crosslinking reaction has taken place. Emulsion polymerization is well known in the art however, it typically entails simultaneous polymerization and emulsification wherein the resulting silicone elastomer composition is in the form of an emulsion, preferably a microemulsion. Typically, the diluent is not removed from the silicone elastomer composition.
However, it is possible to remove the diluent using techniques known in the art, for example, spray drying to produce a solid-like particle. The silicone elastomer may then be used in the solid-like form or it may be re-swelled in the same or a different diluent. One of the benefits derived from silicone elastomer compositions prepared according to this invention is their structural integrity against changes in such parameters as temperature, and the presence or absence of other components such as water, surfactants, and oils.
Another benefit is their reduced permeability for entrapped active ingredients by the formation of crosslinked structures. The silicone elastomer compositions are useful in personal care products, for example, in preparing antiperspirants and deodorants. They can be used in skin creams, skin care lotions, moisturizers, facial treatments such as acne or wrinkle removers, personal and facial cleansers, bath oils, perfumes, colognes, sachets, sunscreens, pre-shave and after-shave lotions, shaving soaps, and shaving lathers.
They can be used in hair shampoos, hair conditioners, hair sprays, mousses, permanents, depilatories, and cuticle coats.
In cosmetics they can be added to make-ups, color cosmetics, foundations, blushes, lipsticks, eyeliners, mascara, oil removers, color cosmetic removers, and powders.
In such applications the compositions may include oil soluble, polar solvent soluble, and water-soluble ingredients such as vitamins as noted above. These compositions are also capable of functioning as carriers for pharmaceuticals, biocides, herbicides, pesticides, and other biologically active substances; and they have utility as additives for cellulosic or synthetic nonwoven carrier substrates used in wet-like cleansing wipes such as wet-wipes, tissues, and towels, marketed generally for personal hygiene and household cleaning tasks.
At this time the mixture was cooled to room temperature to yield a cloudy white viscous oil. Example 2 Into a vial was placed 3. Example 3 Into a vial was placed 3. Approximately, 3. Example 5 Into a vial was placed 3. Example 6 Into a vial was placed 3. Example 7 Into a vial was placed 3. Example 8 Into a vial was placed 3. The present invention relates to 1. The silicone elastomer as in 1 wherein in siloxane I there are at least two Z' groups and the crosslinker II contains Z groups.
The silicone elastomer as in 1 wherein in siloxane I there are at least two Z groups and the crosslinker contains II Z' groups. The silicone elastomer as in 1 wherein siloxane I contains at least one F group. The silicone elastomer as in 1 wherein there is additionally present V an active ingredient. With respect to semiconductor devices in which an interconnect structure comprising at least 1 electrically conductive layer is provided on a semiconductor substrate with separation by an interposed insulating layer composed mainly of silicon dioxide, a semiconductor device characterized in that the dielectric constant of the said insulating layer has been adjusted to less than 2.
The silicone elastomer as claimed in claim 1 wherein in siloxane I there are at least two Z' groups and the crosslinker II contains Z groups. The silicone elastomer as claimed in claim 1 wherein in siloxane I there are at least two Z groups and the crosslinker contains II Z' groups. The silicone elastomer as claimed in claim 1 wherein siloxane I contains at least one F group.The silicone elastomer as bad in claim 1 wherein in siloxane I there are at least two Z' iraqis and the crosslinker II contains Z groups. Breather Hi-Res Image Download to MS-PowerPoint Cite This: Langmuir Maiden Monolithically ordered liquid crystal ist networks are formed by the photoinitiated bong of multifunctional liquid crystal monomers. The pressing of subscript n issatisfactorily.
The silicone elastomer as claimed in claim 1 wherein in siloxane I there are at least two Z' groups and the crosslinker II contains Z groups. When the nerve endings are stimulated, sodium enters the neuron , causing depolarization of the nerve and subsequent initiation of an action potential. The silicone elastomer as in 1 wherein in siloxane I there are at least two Z groups and the crosslinker contains II Z' groups.
ACS Photonics , 5 8 ,
Advanced Optical Materials , 6 15 , Typically the ratio of reactive sites in the Z to Z' groups is from 0. Benzocaine is sparingly soluble in water; it is more soluble in dilute acids and very soluble in ethanol, chloroform , and ethyl ether. It has an HLB of about Illustrative of such silicone fluids are polydimethylsiloxane, polydiethylsiloxane, polymethylethylsiloxane, polymethylphenylsiloxane, and polydiphenylsiloxane. The present invention relates to 1.
Schenning, Dirk J.