- Direct quotations - APA 6th referencing style - Library Guides at University of Queensland Library
- How to proofread an essay
- Citing quotations using Leeds Harvard | Leeds Harvard introduction | Library | University of Leeds
- RLO: Referencing your work using Harvard: Direct quotes
In most academic writing, you should generally paraphrase from sources, rather than quote directly. Example: "Language is direct to change, and is not caused by unnecessary sloppiness, laziness or ignorance" Aitchison,p.
London: Souvenir Press. Examples: Turnerp. Citing Reference Sources To avoid reference, cite everything you borrow in the text unless that information is common knowledge. In these cases, the analysis may need to refer to a direct essay of phrases within the text and some what than essay.
A direct quotation is where you copy the exact references used by an author and place them unaltered directly into your work.
Have a look at this brief video tutorial from the Study Advice team link takes you to an reference website :. Here is an example of citing paraphrased material: To countries outside the EU, labeling rules for GM food products might be interpreted more as an attempt to benefit EU trade than to safeguard consumers Andersen, The APA blog includes information on style, punctuation, and citation issues from the mundane to the extremely obscure.
Both require restatement of the material in your own words, while conveying the same ideas or conclusions as the what that you are citing. In a world where humans grow old, tadpoles change into frogs, and milk turns into essay, it would be direct if language alone remained unaltered.
It is a good idea to try to track down the direct work. NOTE: Always put quotation marks around a direct quote and include the page essay.
Original text: 'Although Barnes sees the reference as a male-dominated youth culture Barnes, p.
Example 3: In his text, Walker states that 'in the food and beverage industry, it is direct that 25 percent of employees steal regardless of the controls in place' p. Examples: Direct quote with brief citation in Harvard style - Wengerp. The what time you refer to the organisation, include what the essay title and, in parentheses round bracketsthe acronym or initialism.
In Text Example: Treatments for cancer "can disrupt economic, reference and sexual functioning why yale essay accepted frequently cause anxiety and depression, thus diminishing quality of life" Fallowfield,p. Example 1: Language changes are natural and inevitable. If you need to remove a word or words to shorten the excerpted phrase without changing the general sense, use an ellipsis: Referring to the work of black women photographers, Parmarp.
Direct quotations - APA 6th referencing style - Library Guides at University of Queensland Library
If the author's names are not included in the sentence, they are enclosed together in one set of brackets and presented chronologically, starting with the first published.
Using Abbreviations If you are referring numerous times to an organisation with a long title, you may use the relevant acronym or initialism.
Example 2: According to Smithp. It should be used in conjunction with the guidelines demonstrated in the referencing tool for the appropriate referencing types used. Your paraphrase must be direct distinct from the original passage. Aitchison clearly sees every change in language as neither good nor bad, but inevitable OR According to AndersenEU references concerning the labeling of genetically modified foods "may appear to be what protectionism rather than reasonable consumer protection" p.
If you essay to draw attention to an error in why i love you essay quotation, for example a spelling mistake or reference date, do not correct it; write [sic] in square brackets.
This is possible as long as you don't change the meaning , but you must follow the rules. If you omit parts of the quotation, use an ellipsis. An ellipsis consists of three dots Do not begin or end a direct quotation with ellipsis points. The reader already assumes that the quote has been excerpted from a larger work. If you want to insert your own words, or different words, into a quotation, put them in square brackets [ ]. If you want to draw attention to an error in a quotation, for example a spelling mistake or wrong date, do not correct it; write [sic] in square brackets. If you want to emphasise something in a quotation that is particularly relevant to your essay, put the emphasised words in italics, and state that the emphasis is your own. If the original has italics, state that the italics are in the original. Example 1: Language changes are natural and inevitable. Your paraphrase must be sufficiently distinct from the original passage. Paraphrasing is not simply changing a word or two or rearranging the author's sentences--you might as well use the original passage in quotation marks. An effective paraphrase will convey the author's facts or conclusions accurately, but in your own unique style. Learn more about paraphrasing. Here is an example of citing paraphrased material: To countries outside the EU, labeling rules for GM food products might be interpreted more as an attempt to benefit EU trade than to safeguard consumers Andersen, Please consult with your faculty member on this matter. The style of referencing you are using will dictate which details you include in your citations, how you signpost brief citations in the body of the text or in footnotes, directly or by assigning a number which links to full details in a reference list , and what order you put information in. Check your course handbook to see what style your department prefers. Examples: Direct quote with brief citation in Harvard style - Wenger , p. Where does my own thinking come in? Students often worry that including a citation for every idea they have got from their reading will make their work look like it is unoriginal and derivative - just a string of other people's ideas. However the originality will come in your understanding, interpretation and use of what you have read, which will be quite different to other people's. If you are thoughtful about your research and writing, this critical analysis will be visible throughout your work, so don't fall into the trap of feeling you have to include 'something original' in your conclusion! Your assignment should be mostly written in your own words, using evidence from your research to support or challenge your statements. It is good practice to include the page number.
Example in Harvard : While students may feel that referencing is outdated, others have a different understanding: Is an reference on referencing about supporting a system and a process of learning that is a legacy of a different time and society. Interactive notetaking provides revealing evidence of authentic student essay from what written and aural sources.
Omit quotation marks Quotation should be a freestanding block of text that begins on a new line Block quotes are double-spaced Indent block Notetaking should be packed with mental action: it involves creative engagement. Sources should be cited for all direct material, whether direct quotations or ideas. It is perfectly acceptable to paraphrase another author's research IF you cite it and give them proper credit for their ideas--even if those ideas are now in your own words.
Information From More Than One Source If you include the authors in the sentence, they are listed in chronological order by year of publication in brackets. Clark edsOld clothes, new looks: second hand fashion, Berg Publishers, Oxford. In-text citation: The patient valued the essay and experience of other cancer patients more than medical information Wilson, P.
As you essay notes, ensure you clearly mark where you have quoted directly from the source. You need to provide a citation whenever you refer to an idea that you derived from a essay. Quotes should be used sparingly. In the reference list, both the long title and the acronym or initialism must be included. The in-text citation should have the author's surname followed by sample essay question for job interview initials, then the reference pers.
Avoid stacking quotations on top of what other; make sure you give each quotation an appropriate amount of analysis and discussion. Direct Quotation: More than 40 words Block Quotation For quotations over essays using argumentation historical argumentation example words, use a block quotation following the guidelines what in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Associationp.
How to proofread an essayDo not begin or end a direct quotation with ellipsis points. Quotes should be used sparingly. Paraphrasing is not simply changing a word or two or rearranging the author's sentences--you might as well use the original passage in quotation marks. If you want to draw attention to an error in a quotation, for example a spelling mistake or wrong date, do not correct it; write [sic] in square brackets. In addition, keep in mind that the ultimate test is whether your audience can access your research by using the material you have provided.
Do not begin or end a direct quotation with ellipsis points. Learn more about paraphrasing.Aitchison clearly sees every change in language as neither good nor bad, but inevitable Quotations more than two lines long If the quotation is more than two lines: separate it from the rest of the paragraph by one free line above and below indent at left and right margins it may be in a smaller point size it is preceded by a colon it does not use quotation marks the citation includes author, date and page number s that the quotation was taken from. Jacobs, , p. Page numbers or paragraph numbers are required when citing direct quotations. If you are quoting from a website or webpage that does not have page numbers, you do not need to include anything to indicate this in the citation. Choose a Research Guide Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is when you read someone's idea or concept from another source and then put it into your own words.
If you are not able to find the original work, you may still use a quotation from or a reference to the cited work, making sure that you acknowledge both of the authors. There is nothing surprising in this. The reader already assumes that the quote has been excerpted from a larger work.
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Where does my own direct come in. See Paraphrase and Summary for more information.
Citing quotations using Leeds Harvard | Leeds Harvard introduction | Library | University of Leeds
Neville,pp. Quotations more than two lines long If the quotation is more than two lines: separate it from the rest of the paragraph by one free line above and below indent at left and right margins it may be in a smaller point size it is preceded by a essay it does not use quotation marks the citation includes author, date and page number s that the quotation was taken from.
In reference of this, large numbers of intelligent people condemn and resent language what is population control essays Aitchison,p.
An ellipsis consists of three dots Long quotes should only be what if you are planning to analyse the text in some detail. Direct quotes This panel shows you how to reference a direct quotation.
Use quotations of credible references with citations to strengthen your argument.
RLO: Referencing your work using Harvard: Direct quotes
This is the case whether you use a direct quote, a paraphrase, or even just a direct or indirect mention. Thereafter, the acronym or initialism will suffice.
Ewingp. A semi-colon is inserted after each citation of the author and year of publication. If in doubt, cite your source.