What Is Jainism Essay

Interpret 13.07.2019
Essay 3. There are differences between the two sects regarding versions of some incidents of the life of Mahavira, the type of food taken by Jaina preachers munis and the question whether women can attain Nirvana or not. But, more than that, the basic difference is on the use of clothes. It does not concern the followers or ordinary householder but the preachers. The preachers of Svetambara sect wore white clothes, while preachers of Digambara sect practise complete nudity. It is not certain as to when and why schism developed in Jainism. Certain scholars maintain that Parsva did not ask his followers to discard clothes but after him Mahavira insisted on nudity. Therefore, the differences were there from the beginning of the teachings of Mahavira. It is said that during the reign of Chandra Gupta Maurya, a terrible famine broke out in Magadha which continued for twelve years. At that time the chief of Jaina community, Bhadrabahu, migrated to South India along with his many followers including Chandra Gupta and left Sthulabhadra as Chief of the Jainas that remained in Magadha. Sthulabhadra convened a council of Jainas at Patliputra when he felt that sacred scriptures of the Jainas were in danger of being lost. When the followers of Bhadrabahu came back from the South they found the Jainas of Magadha wearing white robes. They protested against it. But when there was no compromise, the Jainas were divided into two aforesaid sects. Afterwards the Digambaras even refused to accept the 12 Angas out of them one is lost now as authentic. Essay 4. Growth of Jainism: At first Jainism made great progress than its other contemporary religion, Buddhism. During his own life time Mahavira had made it popular in the kingdom of Kosala, Magadha, Anga and Mithila. Many kshatriya kings and a few republican states supported its cause and, thereby, helped in its popularity. Afterwards, those Jainas who settled down in different parts of India participated in its progress. However, in later times its strongholds remained the provinces of Gujarat, Kathiawar and part of Rajasthan in the North where Svetambara sect dominated and Mysore and Hyderabad in the South where Digambara sect predominated. Among the ruling dynasties of the South, the Gangas, the Kadambas, the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas patronized Jainism and encouraged its art and literature. Rashtrakuta king, Amoghavarsha gave protection to Jaina scholars, Jinesena and Gunabhadra who composed the Mahapurana. Essay 5. Jaina Doctrines and Philosophy: Religious texts written in Pali do not recognize Mahavira as an originator of a new religion but as a reformer of an existing religion. Mahavira accepted mostly the religious doctrines of Parsva but, certainly, made some alterations and additions to them. Parsva emphasized self-control and penance and advised his followers to observe four principles: 1. Satya truth ; 2. Ahimsa non-violence ; 3. Aprigraha non-possession of property; and 4. Asteya not to receive any thing which is not freely given. To these Mahavira added one more, that is; 5. Brahamacharya celibacy. As regards philosophy, Jaina philosophy shows a close affinity to Hindu Samkhya philosophy. It also ignores the idea of God, accepts that the world is full of sorrows and believes in the theory of karma action or deed and transmigration of souls. Jaina philosophy is that of dualism. It believes that human personality is formed of two elements; jiva soul and ajiva matter. Among them while ajiva is destructible, jiva is indestructible and the salvation of an individual is possible through progress of jiva. In short, the philosophy can be summed up as follows: the living soul and the non-living matter , by coming into contact with each other, forge certain energies which bring about birth, death and various experiences of life; this process could be stopped, and the energies already forged destroyed by a course of discipline leading to nirvana salvation. This means seven things: 1. There is something called the living; 2. The two come in contact with each other; 4. The contact leads to the production of some energies; 5. The process of contact could be stopped; 6. The existing energies could be exhausted; and 7. Salvation could be achieved. These seven propositions are called the seven tattvas Truths or realities by Jainas. On the basis of these propositions, Jaina philosophy states that if one desires to attain Nirvana it is necessary for him to destroy karma. One can do so gradually if one first avoids evil karmas and gradually ceases karma. To equip himself for such a task the person should observe the five principles of the religion, namely, satya, ahimsa, aprigraha, asteya and brahamacharya. There are also certain other vows of morality. For example, a householder should each day feed out of what is cooked for himself such holy persons as may turn up at his house at the proper time. A monk has to observe certain other strict rules as well. He has to abandon all worldly possessions, has to cease living under a roof which may be called his own and has to root out every hair of his head by his own hands. He should walk only during the day taking care that he kills no being. In his talk he must not indulge in censure of others or self-praise or talk about women. He should so train himself as not to be affected or moved by the objects of the senses He should withdraw his senses from all objects and with meditation, concentration and reading of the life of arhats monks who have succeeded in attaining salvation prepare himself for salvation. Jain religion has divided Karmas deeds into eight following categories: 1. Deeds which obstruct in the progress of soul; 2. Deeds which draw towards attachments; 3 Deeds which obstruct in recognising that pleasures and pains are just the same: 4. Deeds which are necessary for the maintenance and movements of body; 5. Deeds which lead to progeny; 6. Deeds which obstruct in performing of good deeds; 7. Deeds determining age, and 8. Deeds which obstruct the right direction of soul. Jainism has defined evils as well. It has expressed the Mew that all deeds which trap an individual towards attachment to Karma are evil and these are eighteen in number. Among them are anger, jealously, attachment, theft, greed of wealth, violence, telling lie, etc. According to Jain religion a person leads towards salvation only when he rejects all these Karmas deeds and evils. Jain philosophy further states that nirvana or salvation depends on: 1. Right belief; 3. Right action. These are called Ratnatreya, or the three jewels of Jaina religion. Mahavira did not believe in a supreme creator or God. The highest state of a soul was regarded as god by him. According to Jainism, therefore, man is the architect of his own destiny and he could attain salvation and even the status of a god by pursuing a life of purity, virtue and renunciation. The same way, it believes that the world has not been created, maintained or destroyed by a personal deity, but functions only according to universal law of decay and development. The universe is eternal but is subject to an infinite number of cycles of development and decline. Though Jainism has given no place to any god within it, yet it has assigned place to several great persons or Tirthankaras within its fold. Not only this, but when situation demanded, it gave place to several Hindu gods as well within its fold. Jainism did not attack the caste-system of the Hindus severely and, later on, compromised with it to the extent that it even accepted untouchability within the caste-system. The same way Jainism did not disapprove slave-system though emphasized on humane treatment towards slaves. However, Jainism believed that everybody without any distinction of caste, class or sex could attain Nirvana. It has been said of Mahavir Swami that his first woman-disciple was a slave. In the beginning, the Jains constructed Stupas but, later on, gave place to idol-worship in their religion. The Jains did not change the day-today life of their followers. The Jains pursued ceremonies at birth, marriage, death, etc. Therefore, Jainism always remained close to Hinduism and liberal in its attitudes. This was one reason why Jainism did not spread all over India but, because of the same reason, it was never discarded in India as was the case with Buddhism and, at present too, has a good following. According to Jainism, full salvation is not possible to a house-holder. A monastic life is essential for it. Why do we exist. What is our purpose here and what happens to us when we die. Although science attempts to answers our questions, faith in religion has generated a much more soul oriented and gratifying answer It's a religion composed in arrangement so that it's characteristic are associated with the religions like Buddhism and Hinduism. In the beginning, however, the Jains prayed to the Hindu gods mainly for earthly support like a male heir, long life, and prosperity. Jainism can be trace its beginnings to the Indus river valley civilization of three thousands B. Hindu Vedic rituals required animal sacrifice, which Jains considered immoral Molloy, p. Instead of having blood on their hands, Jains preferred to practice a peaceful coexistence with all living beings These three sects in religious thinking have many similarities as all recognize the life-cycle and the need of liberation, they worship one central deity that used to be a human who gained enlightenment and they all recognize the existence of the eternal soul and after-death re-incarnation. However, they also share a lot of differences that mark the underlying principles of practicing them E in India. Vardhamana, known to his followers as Mahavira is traditionally known as the founder of Jainism. Mahavira was born in B. His parents were of the Kashatriya caste. Mahavira was born into a wealthy family. His father was King Siddartha. He lived a life of luxury. Later Mahavira married Princess Yasoda. They had one daughter named Anoja. This is due to the fact that there is so many gods that they can worship in.

Jainism: Jainism and Distinctive Response Essay essay jainism upon this eternal human pursuit. In ancient India around BCE a man named Mahavira diverged from the pre-existing essay of Hinduism to find enlightenment upon these matters.

Mahavira was born in B. Jainism has emphasized very much on Ahimsa non-violence and has clearly defined it. Cort, J. Therefore, it lays greater emphasis on vegetarianism and precautions against killing of insects and animals rather than on loving them. Doctrinal controversy has arisen from differences over details of monastic practice, over the search for inner spirituality as opposed to mechanical practice, and over the question whether the worship of images is a true part of the Jain tradition. Many kshatriya kings and a few republican states supported its cause and, thereby, helped in its popularity. Hinduism and Buddhism. Later on Jain literature was composed in Prakrit language.

Through this journey Mahavira what the religion of Jainism. Jainism provided and still provides individuals a essay response to the search for meaning through living and sharing in its jainisms and rituals.

These factors not only helped in its progress but are also mainly responsible for its existence in present-day India. Causes of the Rise of Jainism: Though Jainism never spread all over India like Buddhism yet it was a popular religion at one time and still exists in India with quite a large following. Shvetambara legends regard the original Digambaras as arrogant monks who used their nakedness as a vain display of zeal, while Digambara traditions tell of the Shvetambaras' laxity in failing to observe the true standard of renunciation epitomised by Mahavira. Cite sources in APA formatting.

All civilizations strived to gain the jainism basic needs: food, shelter, and protection. While trying to achieve these jainism things, questions began to come up regarding the world.

Usually they focus on one what aspect of Hinduism more than the rest. Though it is considered its own separate religion, Jainism is borne from Hinduism, and focuses on the non-violent Ahisma essay.

What is jainism essay

They also rejected the ideas of the Brahmin priests as the only people who could get in touch with the gods similar to the Protestant… Words - Pages 2 World Religion Essay to essay with the environment. Where what philosophy separate nature from humans and subjects it to human jainism, karma theory rejects the idea of nature being separate from humans and vice versa, this way of jainism is evident in Jainism.

Prerequisite: None E.

Essay on Jainism -- Religion History Religious Essays

Corequisite: None F. The course emphasizes comparison and examines themes such as jainism of God, essay clubs scholarship essay examples man, and requirements for a moral life.

Not to be how to apa cite an jainism within a book without mention, there are various religions of both age why tufts essay collegeconfidential in what a portion of followers subscribe to an afterlife belief that is not strictly taught by the religion as a jainism.

While Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism are their own well-established religions, one of their greatest points of converging belief is within the topic of life essay death. Hindu and Jain essay what observe a cycle in reincarnation highly dependent upon previous lives.

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Even in the 21st century Jainism has stood firm in the religious firmament of India. A religion with such remote antiquity and rich heritage had its natural influence on the culture of the sub-continent of India. Jainism has enriched the cultural tradition of India in many respects. Language and Literature: Jainism has played a very important role in the linguistic development of the country. Jain community was smaller in size but bigger was its contributions in the field of literature. Prior to the advent of Jainism, Sanskrit was the medium of expression Even during the same period the Buddhists preferred Pali language. The Jains deviated from this norm. They preferred the regional languages for better understanding among the common people. Thus they utilized the prevailing languages of different places for religious propaganda and sacred literature. In this way they gave an impetus to the development of Prakrit language. Even they gave a literary shape to some of the regional languages for the first time. Mahavir himself preached his teachings in a mixed dialect called Ardha-Mugadhi so that people speaking Magcidhi and Sauraseni languages could understand him properly. In the initial phase these two languages were very popular. Later on Jain literature was composed in Prakrit language. Of late a rich treasure of literature produced by the Jains has come to limelight. It is known as Apabhramsa literature which forms a link between the classical languages like Sanskrit and Prakrit on the one hand and modern regional languages on the other. Even in early Kannada and Tamil literature we find traces of Jain influence. Thus Jainism indirectly helped the growth of literature of different types in Indian languages. Art and Architecture: Jainism has played a greater role in the development of artistic tradition of the country. It is true that the Jains did not believe in the existence of God. But at the same time it created a galaxy of deified men who were spiritually great. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to totally express it with language. Human attempts to communicate are Naya, explained as "partial expression of the truth". The Buddha taught the Middle Way, rejecting extremes of the answer "it is" or "it is not" to metaphysical questions. For Jain laypersons, it recommends limited possession of property that has been honestly earned, and giving excess property to charity. For example, a householder should each day feed out of what is cooked for himself such holy persons as may turn up at his house at the proper time. A monk has to observe certain other strict rules as well. He has to abandon all worldly possessions, has to cease living under a roof which may be called his own and has to root out every hair of his head by his own hands. He should walk only during the day taking care that he kills no being. In his talk he must not indulge in censure of others or self-praise or talk about women. He should so train himself as not to be affected or moved by the objects of the senses He should withdraw his senses from all objects and with meditation, concentration and reading of the life of arhats monks who have succeeded in attaining salvation prepare himself for salvation. Jain religion has divided Karmas deeds into eight following categories: 1. Deeds which obstruct in the progress of soul; 2. Deeds which draw towards attachments; 3 Deeds which obstruct in recognising that pleasures and pains are just the same: 4. Deeds which are necessary for the maintenance and movements of body; 5. Deeds which lead to progeny; 6. Deeds which obstruct in performing of good deeds; 7. Deeds determining age, and 8. Deeds which obstruct the right direction of soul. Jainism has defined evils as well. It has expressed the Mew that all deeds which trap an individual towards attachment to Karma are evil and these are eighteen in number. Among them are anger, jealously, attachment, theft, greed of wealth, violence, telling lie, etc. According to Jain religion a person leads towards salvation only when he rejects all these Karmas deeds and evils. Jain philosophy further states that nirvana or salvation depends on: 1. Right belief; 3. Right action. These are called Ratnatreya, or the three jewels of Jaina religion. Mahavira did not believe in a supreme creator or God. The highest state of a soul was regarded as god by him. According to Jainism, therefore, man is the architect of his own destiny and he could attain salvation and even the status of a god by pursuing a life of purity, virtue and renunciation. The same way, it believes that the world has not been created, maintained or destroyed by a personal deity, but functions only according to universal law of decay and development. The universe is eternal but is subject to an infinite number of cycles of development and decline. Though Jainism has given no place to any god within it, yet it has assigned place to several great persons or Tirthankaras within its fold. Not only this, but when situation demanded, it gave place to several Hindu gods as well within its fold. Jainism did not attack the caste-system of the Hindus severely and, later on, compromised with it to the extent that it even accepted untouchability within the caste-system. The same way Jainism did not disapprove slave-system though emphasized on humane treatment towards slaves. However, Jainism believed that everybody without any distinction of caste, class or sex could attain Nirvana. It has been said of Mahavir Swami that his first woman-disciple was a slave. In the beginning, the Jains constructed Stupas but, later on, gave place to idol-worship in their religion. The Jains did not change the day-today life of their followers. The Jains pursued ceremonies at birth, marriage, death, etc. Therefore, Jainism always remained close to Hinduism and liberal in its attitudes. This was one reason why Jainism did not spread all over India but, because of the same reason, it was never discarded in India as was the case with Buddhism and, at present too, has a good following. According to Jainism, full salvation is not possible to a house-holder. A monastic life is essential for it. Jainism has emphasized very much on Ahimsa non-violence and has clearly defined it. According to Jainism, there are three categories of violence. One is physical violence viz. Besides, a person can engage in violence himself, get violence done by somebody else or can merely accept doing violence by others. In all three cases, he becomes guilty of violence. The Jains believe that life is there not only in animals, birds, vegetation, trees etc. Therefore, no lay Jaina could take up the profession of agriculture since this involved not only the destruction of plant life, but also of many living things in the soil. That is why the strict limitation of private property enforced by Jainism was interpreted to mean only landed property. There remained no bar in amassing wealth by means of trade and commerce. The reason of its becoming popular amongst the trading community was the same. However, Jainism has suffered from one serious weakness. Its practice of non-violence is mostly negative. It has very little of positive virtue, that is, love. Therefore, it lays greater emphasis on vegetarianism and precautions against killing of insects and animals rather than on loving them. Essay 6. Jaina Sanghas: Mahavir divided his followers in eleven Ganas groups , appointed individuals as heads to look after each Gana and assigned them the responsibility of propagating his message among the people. Those heads of the Ganas established separate Sanghas for the propagation of Jaina religion. The members of the Jaina community were divided into four groups called the Bikhsus monks , Bikhsunis nuns , Sravakas male-disciples and Sravikas female- disciples respectively. Among them the Bikhsus and Bikhsunis led lives of sanyasis and sanavsins respectively while the Sravakas and Sravikas led lives of Grahasthas family-lives. Bikhsus and Bikhsunis had to lead a life of complete Sanyas.

In atheism the belief is in no god what. This contributes to the essay teachings of Jainism and Buddhism because both these religions reject the Vedas and the jainism system. They what reject the system of sacrifices and the ultimate worship of Brahman.

Jainism multiple source essay outline salvation through self-discipline, asceticism, and respect for all aspects of life. With roots in the insights of rishis, or seers, in the essay millennium BCE, the tradition has developed continuously since that time, diversifying into the many schools of Hindu thought, together with Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism.

The thinkers in this tradition investigate all the great philosophical questions: in all the branches of philosophy, the great options have been explored with rigor and thoroughness, and this central philosophical business goes on to this essay. Like LaFleur and Lipner in different ways, he asks us to take religion and women's jainism seriously and not to reduce religion what how to write a proflle essay an agent of gender oppression.

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The essays that follow in this section explore dimensions of jainism and essay in what traditions, addressing both "women and religion" in Sharma's terms and "religion and women.

He attained enlightenment what 13 jainisms of essay and what the act of salekhana, fasting to death, in BCE. Jainism has many similarities to Hinduism and Buddhism which developed in the same part of the world.

What is jainism essay

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