Examples Mr. Whichever length you choose, use it consistently throughout your document. Surrounding punctuation should be placed as usual. Spaces with the em dash The em dash is typically used without spaces on either side, and that is the style used in this guide. Hyphens - are used to connect two or more words and numbers into a single concept, especially for building adjectives. Likewise, some married people use hyphens to combine their last name with their spouse's: There are fewer Italian-American communities these days. She has stopped buying 2-liter bottles and has started buying 0. When we confuse the em dash with the hyphen, we make a sentence virtually impossible to read. Em Dashes, Parentheses, or Commas? If a comma or a pair of them works, use it. Parentheses tend to downplay an idea; they suggest that the information in them is helpful but not necessary. Em dashes draw attention to the information they enclose or set apart. Typically the writer is telling the reader that the information being set off by em dashes is important. Note, too, that em dashes are unspaced. This style of dash is more common in American English. You can also use an en dash to indicate a connection e. In addition, en dashes can be used parenthetically, like the em dashes above. This is more common in the UK than the US, and you would usually add spaces before and after parenthetical en dashes: The Etruscans — a largely mysterious civilisation — left behind few archaeological artefacts. Whether to use em dashes or en dashes to set apart part of a sentence is largely a matter of preference. If your keyboard can't produce a dash, you will have to resort to a hyphen as a stand-in. In British usage, we use only a single hyphen to represent a dash - like this. American usage, in contrast, uses two consecutive hyphens -- like this A. Here I must confess that I strongly prefer the American style, since the double hyphen is far more more prominent than a single one and avoids any possibility of ambiguity. If you are writing for publication, you will probably have to use the single hyphen; in other contexts, you should consider using the more vivid double hyphen. In any case, you will be very unlucky if your word processor can't produce a proper dash and save you from worrying about this.
Producing the em dash Em dash The em dash is perhaps the most versatile punctuation mark. Notwithstanding its versatility, the em dash is best limited to two appearances per sentence.Hyphens are also used in syllable breaks when words cannot fit completely on a line, and must be continued on the following line. With word processors and the ability to automatically move whole words, though, this has become less common: This opinion is based on sales figures for the past few months, and con- versations I have had with customers. In this way they function like colons, but are not used for lists of multiple items, and are used less frequently in formal writing situations: There was only one person suited to the job—Mr. They can also be used as substitutes for parentheses: Mr. When we confuse the em dash with the hyphen, we make a sentence virtually impossible to read. Em Dashes, Parentheses, or Commas? If a comma or a pair of them works, use it. Parentheses tend to downplay an idea; they suggest that the information in them is helpful but not necessary. Em dashes draw attention to the information they enclose or set apart. Typically the writer is telling the reader that the information being set off by em dashes is important. The En Dash The en dash is slightly longer than the hyphen but not as long as the em dash. Many people were not even aware of the distinction between the en dash and the em dash until the advent of word processors, when software programs enabled us to use marks of punctuation that once had been available only to professional printers. Important: Spacing with Hyphens and Dashes When using the hyphen, the en dash, or the em dash, most style books advocate putting space neither before nor after them. En and Em Dashes There are two kinds of dash you might need to use, en dashes and em dashes, each of which has a specific purpose: En Dashes An en dash — is a little longer than a hyphen. Its main use is to indicate a range of values e. August—October, pp. Anglo—American relations. The more modern one is to put white spaces at both ends of a dash, while the older style uses no white spaces at all, but writes the dash solid next to whatever precedes and follows it. Both conventions are in use, and hence you may see either of the following: The Serbs want peace — or so they say. The Serbs want peace—or so they say. I prefer the first style, since it is much easier on the eye, and I recommend that you adopt this style. The dash has only one use: a pair of dashes separates a strong interruption from the rest of the sentence. A strong interruption is one which violently disrupts the flow of the sentence. Remember that the same thing is true of bracketing commas , which set off weak interruptions. Here are some examples: An honest politician — if such a creature exists — would never agree to such a plan. The destruction of Guernica — and there is no doubt that the destruction was deliberate — horrified the world.
Otherwise, confusion rather than clarity is likely to result. Do not mistake the em dash — for the slightly narrower en dash — or the even narrower hyphen.
Em dash | The Punctuation Guide
Those marks serve different purposes and are further explained in other sections. Em dashes in place of commas A pair of em dashes can be used in place of commas to enhance readability. Note, however, that dashes are always more emphatic than commas.
Em dashes in place of parentheses A pair of em dashes can replace a pair of parentheses.
Dashes are considered less dash than parentheses; they are also more intrusive. If you want to draw attention to the parenthetical content, use essays. If you want to include the parenthetical content more subtly, use parentheses. Note that when dashes are used in place of parentheses, surrounding punctuation should be omitted.
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Compare the essay examples. Examples Upon discovering the errors all of themthe publisher immediately how the books.
When used in place of parentheses at the end of a sentence, only a single dash is used. Examples After three weeks on set, the cast was fed up with his direction or, rather, lack of direction.
The Dash : The Hyphen and the Dash
The em dash in place of a colon The em dash can be used in place of a colon when you want to emphasize the conclusion of your sentence. The dash is less formal than the colon. Multiple em dashes Two em dashes can be used to indicate missing portions of a word, whether unknown or intentionally essay writing prompt for thank you mr.
falker. Examples Mr. Whichever length you choose, use it space throughout your document. Surrounding punctuation should be placed as usual.
Just little lines used to connect words? Well, sort of, but there are important distinctions you should keep in mind you writing an essay. What exactly is the difference? Hyphens are also used when constructing a phrasal adjective e. En and Em Dashes There are two kinds of dash you might need to use, en dashes and em dashes, space of which has a specific purpose: En Dashes How en dash — is a dash longer than a hyphen. Its main use is to indicate a range of values e. August—October, pp.
Spaces dash the em dash The em dash is typically used without spaces on either side, and that is the style used in this guide. Most newspapers, however, set the em dash off with a single space on space side. You the em dash Many word processors will automatically insert an em how when you type a pair of hyphens.
Dissertation writing services usaWe have heard from our readers in countries outside the U. Whether to use em dashes or en dashes to set apart part of a sentence is largely a matter of preference. Ultimately, though, whether to use em dashes or en dashes to set apart part of a sentence is largely a matter of preference as long as you are consistent. Most newspapers, however, set the em dash off with a single space on each side. Use the dash carefully: overuse of dashes will give your writing a breathless and disjointed appearance. The symbol above the hyphen is an underline, not a dash.
If you are using a typewriter, a pair of hyphens is the closest you can get you an em dash.