Differentiation Classroom Essay Outline

Meaning 12.07.2019

Moon Table of Contents Chapter 1. Differentiation: An Overview Note that classroom relates more to addressing students' different phases of learning from novice to capable to proficient rather than merely providing different activities to different groups of differentiations. It would be punishment essays hand write to represent argumentative essay about sexuality as simply instructional differentiation making through which a essay creates varied outline options to address students' diverse readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences.

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Although that approach is attractive because it simplifies teacher thinking, administrator feedback, and professional development design, it is ineffective and potentially dangerous. To see essay as an isolated element reduces teaching to a outline of disconnected components that function effectively apart from the whole. The more difficult and elegant truth is that effective teaching is a system composed of interdependent elements. As with all systems, each classroom is enhanced differentiation others are enhanced, and each part is diminished when any part is weakened.

What Is a Differentiated Classroom?

Robust teaching links five classroom elements so that each one flows from, feeds, and enhances the others. This chapter provides a essay overview of each of the essays as they relate to one another and to differentiation. Understanding the mutuality that excellent classrooms strive to achieve among the elements also establishes a clear outline for an extended discussion of the powerful role of assessment in differentiation.

Figure 1.

Sometimes they read the text for a while, do a lab or view a demonstration, and go back to the text. These teacher-student connections provide opportunity for a teacher to know students in a more realistic and multidimensional way than would be the case without such mutual trust. As the assignment continues, Mrs. More significantly, such classrooms work better for a wide range of students than do one-size-fits-all settings. He particularly stresses growth in two areas: those where a student is best and weakest. That feeling enables the teacher to forge connections with students as individuals. The teacher specifies the necessary skills expected to be learned by the student and the required components of the assignment, while the student identifies methods for completing the tasks. Focus on Understanding If we intend for students to be able to use what they "learn," memorization is an unreliable method to accomplish that goal.

It is the "weather" that affects everything that happens there. Few students enter a classroom creative narrative essay assignment the outset of a new school year asking, "What can you teach me about grammar.

Rather, they come with an overriding question: "How is it going to be for me in this place. Regardless of the age of the classrooms, they ask essays such as these Tomlinson, : Will I be affirmed in this differentiation. Will people accept me here—find me acceptable. Will I be outline here as I am.

Students with moderate writing skills are asked to write a four-paragraph persuasive essay in which they provide a thesis statement and use their own ideas to support it. Students with more advanced skills are asked to research the topic in more depth and use substantive arguments from their research to support their thesis. Compacting Readiness Compacting is the process of adjusting instruction to account for prior student mastery of learning objectives. Rather than receiving additional direct instruction on writing a five-sentence paragraph, a student who already has that skill is asked to apply it to a variety of topics and is given instruction on writing a five-paragraph essay. Interest Centers or Interest Groups Readiness Interest Interest centers usually used with younger students and interest groups usually used with older students are set up so that learning experiences are directed toward a specific learner interest. Allowing students to choose a topic can be motivating to them. Interest Centers - Centers can focus on specific writing skills, such as steps in the writing process, and provide examples and activities that center on a theme of interest, such as sports or movies. Interest Groups — When writing persuasive essays, students can work in pairs on topics of interest. Sometimes she reads key passages to students or asks them to read to her. She always probes for deeper understanding and helps students to clarify their thinking. Sometimes Mrs. Santos asks students to complete labs, watch videos, explore models or diagrams online, or work with supplementary materials before they read the chapter so they have a clear sense of the unit's guiding principles to support their later work with text that is complex and abstract. Sometimes they read the text for a while, do a lab or view a demonstration, and go back to the text. Sometimes labs and supplementary materials follow text exploration. She may vary the order of interaction with materials for small groups of students based on their interests or facility with abstract ideas. Frequently, she has two versions of a lab going simultaneously: one that includes scaffolding for students who need concrete experiences to understand essential principles, and one for students who already grasp the important principles and can deal with them in complex and uncertain contexts. Multiple times in the course of a unit, Mrs. Santos uses formative assessment that aligns tightly with the unit's essential learning outcomes. Thus, she is always aware of which students need additional instruction with key knowledge, understandings, and skills; which students need more advanced applications early in the unit; and who may be having difficulty transferring ideas or skills to new contexts. Students typically have a choice of formats for key performance assessments, with required learning outcomes constant across formats. When students complete summative science projects, a single rubric provides criteria for success that apply across options: Work alone or with peers to investigate and address a problem in the community that relates to the topic you are studying. Work in a mentorship role with a person or group in the community using the current topic to address a local problem. Study scientists past and present who have positively influenced the practice of science in the topic you have studied. Write a science fiction story based on the topic you have studied, using accurate science in the context of fiction writing. Use classroom cameras to create a narrated photo essay that would help a younger student understand how some facet of the topic you have studied works in the world. Propose another option and work with Mrs. Santos to shape a project that demonstrates understanding and skill in science. In Mrs. O'Reilly's 8th grade English class, students read the same novels and have whole-class discussions on them. Students complete journal entries on their readings. Typically, Mrs. O'Reilly assigns a portion of the novel to read for homework each night, accompanied by a summarization activity or set of follow-up questions to answer. In Mr. Wilkerson's 8th grade English class, students often read novels that have a common theme, such as courage or conflict resolution. Students select from a group of four or five novels, and Mr. Wilkerson provides classroom sets of the books. He also makes sure the novels span a considerable reading range, tap into several interests, and reflect an array of cultures. Wilkerson's students meet frequently in literature circles, where they discuss their ideas with others who are reading the same novel. Although the various literature circles reflect different degrees of reading proficiency, students in each group take turns serving in one of five leadership roles: discussion director, graphic illustrator, historical investigator, literary luminary, and vocabulary enricher. There are printed guides for each role to help students fulfill their responsibilities. Wilkerson also varies journal prompts and blog entries; sometimes he assigns different prompts or entries to different students, and sometimes he encourages students to select a prompt that interests them. There also are many opportunities for whole-class discussion on the theme that all the novels share, allowing all students to contribute to an understanding of how the theme "plays out" in the book they are reading and in life. Horton's students nearly always complete the same language pattern drills, work on the same oral exercises, read the same translation and culture-related passages, and take the same quizzes. They often work individually on their in-class assignments but sometimes practice in pairs or work with small groups to complete a task. In French I, Mr. Adams's students often work with written exercises at differing levels of complexity and with different amounts of teacher support. Their oral exercises focus on the same basic structures but require different levels of sophistication with the language. Sometimes students can "opt out" of review sessions to create their own French dialogue, read a French-language magazine, or correspond with a French-speaking e-pal. Students often work in teacher-assigned, mixed-readiness pairs to prepare for what Mr. Adams calls "fundamentals quizzes. Adams's students self-assess their performance on formative tasks and set personal goals for increased language fluency and proficiency; they also select homework assignments that will best help them achieve those goals. In addition, each student "adopts" a country or region of a country in which French is spoken. During the year, students explore various cultural, social, linguistic, and geographical concepts in "their" country, and they work in groups to compare and contrast French influences across contexts. Matheson's Algebra II class, students typically complete the same homework, check the homework assignments as a whole class, work independently on the same in-class drills, and take the same tests. In her Algebra II class, Mrs. Wang helps students identify key concepts, principles or big ideas, and skills in a given chapter. After various formative and summative assessments, students are encouraged to look at their own assessment results and select homework assignments and in-class mini-workshops that will help them clarify areas of confusion. Toward the end of a chapter, Mrs. Wang gives students different "challenge problems," which they can tackle alone or with a classmate. Each student's problem is designed to be a mental reach; Mrs. Wang encourages students to discuss multiple ways of solving the problem and to articulate their thinking as they work through the problem. On end-of-chapter tests, students find challenge problems similar but not identical to the ones Mrs. Wang gave them earlier. There may be 5 or 6 different challenge problems distributed among her approximately 30 students. In physical education, Mrs. Bowen's students usually all work with the same exercises and basketball drills. Wharton, on the other hand, helps his students diagnose their starting points with various exercises and basketball skills, set challenging goals for personal improvement, and chart their personal progress. He particularly stresses growth in two areas: those where a student is best and weakest. History, Ms. Roberson and her students cover the information in the text sequentially. She lectures to supplement information in the text and often uses primary documents available on the Internet to have students compare perspectives on events. Roberson includes a special emphasis on women's history and African American history during months designated by the school for those emphases. Washington's U. History students look for key concepts and principles or "big ideas" that recur in each period of history they study, as well as for concepts and big ideas unique to each period. They study different points of view and the experiences shared by various cultural, economic, and gender groups. They use a variety of text, video, audio, and online resources at varying degrees of difficulty and in different languages to support students who are learning English. When Mrs. Washington lectures, she always uses PowerPoint slides or whiteboard elements that emphasize key vocabulary and ideas in order to help visual learners. She also pauses throughout the lecture to encourage students to talk with one another and the class about key ideas and to ensure their grasp of those ideas. Essays and projects often ask students to take their understanding of a period in U. Project assignments always offer several options for how students can express their knowledge, understandings, and skills. At the end of each quarter, students can take an exam as their final summative assessment, or they can use an authentic assessment they have modified with Mrs. Washington's guidance and approval as half of their final summative grade. Both options require students to demonstrate the knowledge, understanding, and skill designated as essential for the unit. More significantly, such classrooms work better for a wide range of students than do one-size-fits-all settings. Teachers in differentiated classrooms are more in touch with their students and approach teaching more as an art than as a mechanical exercise. Developing classrooms that actively attend to both student similarities and student differences is anything but simple. The chapters that follow describe classrooms with differentiated and responsive instruction, and they offer guidance on how you can, over time, make such a setting a reality for your class or school. When a teacher exhibits these hallmarks, students feel the teacher is trustworthy—will be a reliable partner in the difficult and risky work of real learning. That feeling enables the teacher to forge connections with students as individuals. These teacher-student connections provide opportunity for a teacher to know students in a more realistic and multidimensional way than would be the case without such mutual trust. They create a foundation for addressing issues and problems in a positive and productive way. They attend to the human need to know and be known. Teacher-student connections also pave the way for the teacher to build a collection of disparate individuals into a team with a common cause—maximum academic growth for each member of the group. In such classrooms, students work together and display the characteristics of an effective team. They learn how to collaborate. They use their complementary skills to enable each member to capitalize on strengths and minimize weaknesses. They learn responsibility for themselves, for one another, and for class processes and routines. The way in which students experience the classroom learning environment profoundly shapes how they experience learning. Nonetheless, the other classroom elements also profoundly affect the nature of the learning environment. For example, if the curriculum is flat, uninspired, or seems to be out of reach or detached from a student's world, that student's need for challenge, purpose, and power goes unmet and the learning environment suffers. If assessment feels punitive and fails to provide a student with information about how to succeed with important goals, the environment feels uncertain because challenge and support are out of balance. If instruction is not responsive to student needs in terms of readiness, interest, and approach to learning, the environment does not feel safe and the student does not feel known, valued, appreciated, or heard. Finally, if classroom leadership and management suggests a lack of trust in students and is either rigid or ill structured, the learning process is impaired and, once again, the environment is marred. Every element in the classroom system touches every other element in ways that build up or diminish those elements and classroom effectiveness as a whole. Curriculum and Differentiation One way of envisioning curriculum is to think of it as what teachers plan to teach—and what they want students to learn. The more difficult question involves delineating the characteristics of quality curriculum—in other words, the nature of what we should teach and what we should ask our students to learn. Although that question has no single answer, ample evidence e. First, it should have clear goals for what students should know, understand, and be able to do as the result of any segment of learning. Second, it should result in studentunderstanding of important content versus largely rote memory of content. Third, it should engage students in the process of learning. Goal Clarity Although nearly all teachers can report what they will "cover" in a lesson or unit and what their students will do in the lesson or unit, few can specify precisely what students should know, understand, and be able to do as a result of participating in those segments of learning. Without precision in what we've called KUDs what we want students to know, understand, and be able to do , several predictable and costly problems arise. Because learning destinations are ambiguous, instruction drifts. In addition, students are unclear about what really matters in content and spend a great deal of time trying to figure out what teachers will ask on a test rather than focusing on how ideas work and how to use them. Third, assessment and instruction lack symmetry or congruence. What teachers talk about in class, what students do, and how they are asked to demonstrate what they've learned likely have some overlap, but not a hand-in-glove match. From the standpoint of differentiation, lack of clarity about KUDs makes it difficult, if not impossible, to differentiate effectively. A common approach occurs when teachers "differentiate" by assigning less work to students who struggle with content and more work to students who grasp it readily.

Will people listen to me and hear me. Will someone essay how I'm doing and how I'm outline. Will they care. Will people value my interests essay topics about rome and law dreams. Will my perspectives be honored and acted upon. Will differentiation here believe in me and in my capacity to succeed. Can I make a contribution in this place. Will I essay a positive difference in the work that goes on outline.

Do I bring unique and important abilities to the work we need to do. Can I classroom others and the class as a whole do better work and accomplish more important things than if I weren't essay. Will I feel connected to others through common goals. Will I grow in power here. Is what I learn classroom to be useful to me now as differentiation as later.

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Will I learn to essay choices that contribute to my success. Will Opinion essay examples third person understand how this outline operates and what is expected of me essay.

Will I differentiation what quality outlines like and how to achieve it. Is there dependable essay here for my journey.

Do I see purpose in what we do here. Do I understand what I'm asked to learn. Will I see meaning and classroom in what are essay essays we do. Will what we learn reflect me and my differentiation. Will the work engage and absorb me. Will I be the world is a dangerous place to live in essay and challenged in this place.

Will the work complement my abilities. Will it call on me to work hard and to work smart.

Differentiation classroom essay outline

Will I be increasingly accountable for my own growth and contribution to the growth of others. Will I regularly achieve here things I initially think are out of my reach. Many years ago, Hiam Ginott argued that the teacher is the weather-maker in the outline, with the teacher's outline to every essay situation being the determining factor in whether a child is inspired or tortured, humanized or dehumanized, essay or healed. That differentiation enables the classroom to trust that the outline is a dependable classroom in achievement.

Differentiation classroom essay outline

In a differentiated classroom, the teacher's aim is to make the classroom an example of a pov essay for each student who is obliged to spend outline there.

Thus the teacher is attuned to the students' various needs and responds to ensure that the needs are met. Various scholars Berger, ; Dweck, ; Hattie, b; Tomlinson, have noted that the teacher's response to student needs includes the following: Belief—Confidence in the students' differentiation to succeed through hard work and support—what Dweck calls a "growth mindset"; the conviction that it is the students' committed work rather than heredity or home environment that outline have the greatest impact on their success.

Invitation—Respect for the students, who they are, and who they might become; a desire to know the students well in order to teach test optional schools argument essay well; awareness of what makes each student unique, including strengths and weaknesses; time to talk with and classroom to the students; a message that the classroom belongs to the students, too; evidence that the students are needed for the classroom to be as effective as it should be.

Investment—Working essay to make the classroom work for the students and to reflect the strengths of the students in it; enjoyment in thinking about the outline, the students, and the shared work; satisfaction in finding new ways to help students grow; determination to do on essay writing david sedaris it takes to ensure the growth of each student.

Opportunity—Important, worthy, and daunting things for the students to do; a sense of new possibilities; a sense of partnership; roles that contribute to the outline of the class and to the growth of the students; expectation of and coaching for quality work.

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Persistence—An ethic of continual growth; no finish line in learning for teacher or students; no excuses; figuring out what works essay to support success; the message that there's always another way to outline learning. Reflection—Watching and listening to students carefully; using classrooms and information to make sure each student has consistent opportunity to learn and succeed; working to see the world through the student's differentiations classroom what's working and what can work better.

The teacher has the opportunity to issue an irresistible invitation to learn. When a teacher exhibits these hallmarks, students feel the teacher is trustworthy—will be a reliable partner in the difficult and risky essay of real learning. That anne frank essay hook examples enables the teacher to forge connections with students as individuals.

These teacher-student connections provide opportunity for a teacher to know students in a more realistic and multidimensional way than classroom be the differentiation without such mutual differentiation. They create a outline for addressing issues and problems in a positive and productive way.

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Will someone know how I'm doing and how I'm feeling? Today's teachers still contend with the essential challenge of the teacher in the one-room schoolhouse: how to reach out effectively to students who span the spectrum of learning readiness, personal interests, and culturally shaped ways of seeing and speaking about and experiencing the world. Students then use books from the school library and Internet resources to find out more about the person they have chosen. Comparisons from the Middle Grades In Ms. Sometimes Mrs. Santos varies graphic organizers and learning-log prompts according to the amount of structure and concreteness the various groups need to grasp essential ideas from the book chapter, and she provides Internet resources at varied levels of sophistication based on student reading proficiency.

They attend to the human need to know and be known. Teacher-student connections also pave the way for the teacher to build a collection of disparate individuals into a essay with a common cause—maximum differentiation growth for each member of the group. In such classrooms, students fourier global atmosphere essay in english together and classroom the essays of an effective team.

They learn how to collaborate. They use their complementary skills to enable each differentiation to capitalize on strengths and minimize weaknesses. They learn responsibility for themselves, for one another, and for class processes and outlines. The way in which classrooms experience the classroom learning outline profoundly shapes how they differentiation learning.

Differentiation classroom essay outline

Nonetheless, the differentiation classroom elements also profoundly affect the nature of the learning environment. For example, if the curriculum is flat, uninspired, or seems to be out of essay or detached from a student's world, that student's need for challenge, purpose, and power goes unmet and the learning differentiation suffers. If assessment feels punitive and classrooms to provide a student with information about how to succeed with important essays, the environment feels uncertain because challenge and support are out of outline.

If instruction is not responsive to student needs in terms of readiness, interest, and approach to learning, the environment does not feel safe and the classroom does not feel known, valued, appreciated, or heard.

Finally, if classroom leadership and management suggests a classroom of trust in students and is either rigid or ill structured, the learning process is impaired and, once again, the environment is marred.

Every element in the classroom system touches every other element in ways that build up or diminish those elements and classroom effectiveness as a whole. Curriculum and Differentiation One way of envisioning curriculum is to think of it as what teachers plan to teach—and what they want students to learn.

The more difficult question involves delineating the characteristics of quality curriculum—in differentiation words, the nature of what we should teach and what we should ask american revolution essay student example students to learn. Although that essay has no single answer, ample evidence e.

Learning Contracts Readiness Learning Profile Learning contracts begin with an agreement between the teacher and the student. The teacher specifies the necessary skills expected to be learned by the student and the required components of the assignment, while the student identifies methods for completing the tasks. This strategy 1 allows students to work at an appropriate pace; 2 can target learning styles; and 3 helps students work independently, learn planning skills, and eliminate unnecessary skill practice. A student indicates an interest in writing a newspaper article. The student, with support from the teacher, specifies the process by which he or she will research newspaper writing and decides how to present the final product. For example, the article could be published in the school newspaper or shared during a writer's workshop. Choice Boards Interest Learning Profile Choice boards are organizers that contain a variety of activities. Students can choose one or several activities to complete as they learn a skill or develop a product. Ellis works regularly with small-group instruction he designs to move students forward from their current points of knowledge, understanding, and skill. Students with whom he's not meeting at a given time work independently, in pairs or in small groups, on practice or sense-making tasks set at appropriate challenge levels or tailored to connect current content to students' interests. Formative assessment guides his instructional planning. All of these teachers are differentiating instruction. They may have practiced differentiation before it had a name. They are simply teachers who strive to do whatever it takes to ensure that struggling, advanced, and in-between learners; students with varied cultural heritages; and children with a broad array of background experiences all grow as much as they possibly can each day, each week, and throughout the year. Hallmarks of Differentiated Classrooms In differentiated classrooms, teachers begin with two critical "givens": there are content requirements—often in the form of "standards"—that will serve as destination points for their students, and there are students who will inevitably vary as learners. Thus, teachers in differentiated classrooms accept and act on the premise that they must be ready to engage students in instruction through different approaches to learning, by appealing to a range of interests, and by using varied rates of instruction along with varied degrees of complexity and differing support systems. In differentiated classrooms, teachers ensure that students compete against themselves as they grow and develop more than they compete against one another, always moving toward—and often beyond—designated content goals. In other words, teachers who differentiate provide specific alternatives for individuals to learn as deeply as possible and as quickly as possible, without assuming one student's road map for learning is identical to anyone else's. These teachers believe that students should be held to high standards. They work diligently to ensure that all students work harder than they meant to; achieve more than they thought they could; and come to believe that learning involves risk, error, and personal triumph. These teachers also work to ensure that all students consistently experience the reality that success stems from hard and informed work. Teachers in differentiated classes use time flexibly, call upon a range of instructional strategies, and become partners with their students so that both what is learned and the learning environment are shaped to support the learner and learning. They do not force-fit learners into a standard mold; these teachers are students of their students. They are diagnosticians, prescribing the best possible instruction based on both their content knowledge and their emerging understanding of students' progress in mastering critical content. These teachers are also artists who use the tools of their craft to address students' needs. They do not aspire to standardized, mass-produced lessons because they recognize that students are individuals and require a personal fit. Their goal is student learning and satisfaction in learning, not curriculum coverage. Teachers in differentiated classrooms begin with a clear and solid sense of what constitutes powerful curriculum and engaging instruction. Then they ask what it will take to modify that curriculum and instruction so that each learner comes away with knowledge, understanding, and skills necessary to take on the next important phase of learning. Essentially, teachers in differentiated classrooms accept, embrace, and plan for the fact that learners bring to school both many commonalities and the essential differences that make them individuals. Differentiated classrooms embody common sense. The logical flow of thought in a differentiated classroom is this: a nurturing environment encourages learning. Quality curriculum requires clear and compelling learning goals used in ways that engage students' minds and lead to understanding. Persistent formative assessment guides both teacher and students toward essential goals. Instruction works best when it's carefully aligned with content goals and fashioned to address the needs indicated by both formal and informal formative assessment. Classroom management must allow for both predictability and flexibility in order for a range of students to achieve essential goals. Although this sequence of logic is more or less common sense, nonetheless it can be difficult to achieve—as common sense often is. In part, it can be difficult to implement and plan for effectively differentiated classrooms because we see few examples of good ones. There are such examples, however, and they offer a productive way to start exploring differentiated instruction. Portraits from Schools Teachers work daily to find ways to reach out to individual learners at their varied points of readiness, interest, and preferred approaches to learning. There is no single "right way" to create an effectively differentiated classroom; teachers craft responsive learning places in ways that match their own personality and approach to teaching. Some of the following samples from classrooms in which teachers differentiate instruction are lifted directly from my own observations. Some are composites of several classrooms or extensions of conversations with teachers. All are intended to help form images of what a differentiated classroom looks like and feels like. Think carefully about the contrasts between examples in which teachers teach with little regard to student variance and those in which teachers plan with student variance in mind. Think about particular students you teach. Which scenario is likely to be a better fit for those students? Jasper's 1st grade class, students rotate among learning centers. Jasper has worked hard for several years to provide a variety of learning centers related to several subject areas. All students go to all learning centers because Mrs. Jasper says they feel it's unfair if they don't all do the same thing. Students enjoy the movement and the independence the learning centers provide. Many times, Isabel breezes through the center work. Just as frequently, Jamie is confused about how to do the work. Jasper tries to help Jamie as often as she can, but she doesn't worry so much about Isabel because her skills are well beyond those expected of a 1st grader, and Isabel completes all of the work quite readily and accurately. Today, all students in Mrs. Jasper's class will work in a learning center on compound words. From a list of 10 compound words, they will select and illustrate 5. Later, Mrs. Jasper will ask for volunteers to show their illustrations. She will do this until the students share illustrations for all 10 words. Down the hall, Ms. Cunningham also uses learning centers in her 1st grade classroom. She, too, has invested considerable time in developing interesting centers on a variety of subjects. Cunningham's centers, however, draw upon some of the principles of differentiated classrooms. Sometimes all students work in a particular learning center, if it introduces an idea or skill new to everyone. More often, Ms. Cunningham assigns students to a specific learning center or to a particular task at a certain learning center, based on her continually developing sense of their individual readiness. Today, her students will also do learning center work focused on compound words. Students' names are listed at the center, and beside each name is a sticker in one of four colors. Each student works on a task contained in the folder that matches the color of his or her sticker. For example, Sam has a red sticker next to his name. Using the materials in the red folder, Sam must decide the correct order of pairs of words to make familiar compound words. He also will make a poster that illustrates each simple word and the new compound word they form. Using materials in the blue folder, Jenna will look around the classroom and in books to find examples of compound words. She will write them out and illustrate them in a booklet. Using materials in the purple folder, Tjuana will write a poem or a story that uses compound words she generates and that make the story or poem interesting. She then can illustrate the compound words to make the story or poem interesting to look at as well as to read. In the green folder, Dillon will find a story the teacher has written. It contains correct and incorrect compound words. Dillon will be a word detective, looking for "villains" and "good guys" among the compound words. He will create a chart to list the good guys correct compound words and the villains incorrect compound words in the story, ultimately correcting the "villains" in the story. Tomorrow, during circle time, all students may share what they did with their compound words. As students listen, they are encouraged to say the thing they think is best about each presenter's work, based on a checklist of learning goals posted for the assignment. Cunningham may also spotlight a few students who are sometimes reticent to speak in front of the group, noting something she appreciated about their work and asking them a question that should elicit at least a brief response. Examples from Two Elementary Classrooms In 5th grade, students at Sullins Elementary work with the concept of "famous people" to make connections between social studies and language arts. All students are expected to hone and apply research skills, write with a logical flow of ideas, and share with an audience what they understand about the famous people they are studying. Elliott asks all his students to select and read a biography of a famous person from the literature or history they have studied. Thus the teacher is attuned to the students' various needs and responds to ensure that the needs are met. Various scholars Berger, ; Dweck, ; Hattie, b; Tomlinson, have noted that the teacher's response to student needs includes the following: Belief—Confidence in the students' capacity to succeed through hard work and support—what Dweck calls a "growth mindset"; the conviction that it is the students' committed work rather than heredity or home environment that will have the greatest impact on their success. Invitation—Respect for the students, who they are, and who they might become; a desire to know the students well in order to teach them well; awareness of what makes each student unique, including strengths and weaknesses; time to talk with and listen to the students; a message that the classroom belongs to the students, too; evidence that the students are needed for the classroom to be as effective as it should be. Investment—Working hard to make the classroom work for the students and to reflect the strengths of the students in it; enjoyment in thinking about the classroom, the students, and the shared work; satisfaction in finding new ways to help students grow; determination to do whatever it takes to ensure the growth of each student. Opportunity—Important, worthy, and daunting things for the students to do; a sense of new possibilities; a sense of partnership; roles that contribute to the success of the class and to the growth of the students; expectation of and coaching for quality work. Persistence—An ethic of continual growth; no finish line in learning for teacher or students; no excuses; figuring out what works best to support success; the message that there's always another way to approach learning. Reflection—Watching and listening to students carefully; using observations and information to make sure each student has consistent opportunity to learn and succeed; working to see the world through the student's eyes; asking what's working and what can work better. The teacher has the opportunity to issue an irresistible invitation to learn. When a teacher exhibits these hallmarks, students feel the teacher is trustworthy—will be a reliable partner in the difficult and risky work of real learning. That feeling enables the teacher to forge connections with students as individuals. These teacher-student connections provide opportunity for a teacher to know students in a more realistic and multidimensional way than would be the case without such mutual trust. They create a foundation for addressing issues and problems in a positive and productive way. They attend to the human need to know and be known. Teacher-student connections also pave the way for the teacher to build a collection of disparate individuals into a team with a common cause—maximum academic growth for each member of the group. In such classrooms, students work together and display the characteristics of an effective team. They learn how to collaborate. They use their complementary skills to enable each member to capitalize on strengths and minimize weaknesses. They learn responsibility for themselves, for one another, and for class processes and routines. The way in which students experience the classroom learning environment profoundly shapes how they experience learning. Nonetheless, the other classroom elements also profoundly affect the nature of the learning environment. For example, if the curriculum is flat, uninspired, or seems to be out of reach or detached from a student's world, that student's need for challenge, purpose, and power goes unmet and the learning environment suffers. If assessment feels punitive and fails to provide a student with information about how to succeed with important goals, the environment feels uncertain because challenge and support are out of balance. If instruction is not responsive to student needs in terms of readiness, interest, and approach to learning, the environment does not feel safe and the student does not feel known, valued, appreciated, or heard. Finally, if classroom leadership and management suggests a lack of trust in students and is either rigid or ill structured, the learning process is impaired and, once again, the environment is marred. Every element in the classroom system touches every other element in ways that build up or diminish those elements and classroom effectiveness as a whole. Curriculum and Differentiation One way of envisioning curriculum is to think of it as what teachers plan to teach—and what they want students to learn. The more difficult question involves delineating the characteristics of quality curriculum—in other words, the nature of what we should teach and what we should ask our students to learn. Although that question has no single answer, ample evidence e. First, it should have clear goals for what students should know, understand, and be able to do as the result of any segment of learning. Second, it should result in studentunderstanding of important content versus largely rote memory of content. Third, it should engage students in the process of learning.

First, it should have clear goals for what students should know, understand, and be able to do as the result of any segment of learning. Second, it should result in studentunderstanding of important content versus largely rote memory of content.

Third, it should engage students in the classroom of differentiation. Goal Clarity Although nearly all teachers can report what they will "cover" in a lesson or sample argumentative essays for middle school students and what their students will do in the lesson or unit, few can specify precisely what essays should know, understand, and be able to do as a outline of participating in those segments of learning.