Microbiome In Health Essay

Resemblance 12.01.2020

Are gut microbes really a panacea, or just overhyped. Mo Costandi Read more Why do we think the microbiome is linked to all these conditions. While some links have come from comparing the microbiomes of different groups of people, such as those with a particular disease compared essay healthy individuals, a big player in microbiome research is the germ-free mouse.

This organism is raised in a sterile health and can then be exposed to particular microbes, or groups of microbes, to explore their health.

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This recognition system is unique to each organism because the genetic changes are strictly somatic and the potential sequence diversity far exceeds the number of sequences that can be represented in the cell populations of an individual animal; in most vertebrates, including humans, the somatic recombination events are restricted to immunoglobulin genes in the progenitor cells of the two lymphocyte lineages T cells and B cells. The microbiome does not influence these genetic events——but it plays a major role in shaping the abundance and activities of different types of T cells and B cells [ 9 ]. In addition, short chain fatty acids, which are metabolic waste products of gut microorganisms, promote the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells that secrete protective immunoglobulin A molecules IgAs [ 12 ], and there is evidence that the gut microbiome has an important systemic effect of inhibiting the IgEs that mediate many allergic diseases asthma, eczema, etc. Although many aspects of the complex crosstalk between the microbiome and adaptive immune system are not fully understood, it is already abundantly clear that the microbiome is part of the process that defines both whether the organism recognizes a specific molecular pattern as nonself and also how vigorously the organism responds to nonself. Immunologically speaking, self is not a human trait but the product of complex interactions between human cells and a multitude of microbial cells. But the implications of a low-diversity gut microbiome do not stop there. You may be surprised to learn how lack of or overpopulation of specific bacteria may impact your health. Obesity More and more studies are looking at the association between the gut microbiome and weight gain, with some scientists suggesting the makeup of bacteria in the gut may influence an individual's susceptibility to weight gain. Earlier in the article, we mentioned a study that claims our genes may determine what bacteria live in our gut, and that these bacteria may influence how heavy we are. Share on Pinterest One study identified a specific strain of gut bacteria that may influence our weight. In detail, the study - conducted by researchers from Cornell University in Ithaca, NY, and King's College London in the UK - found that a certain strain of bacteria - Christensenellaceae minuta - was more common in people with a low body weight , and that the presence of this particular strain is highly influenced by genes. What is more, introducing this bacteria to the guts of mice caused the animals to gain less weight, indicating the bacteria may reduce or prevent obesity. Tim Spector of King's College London. A more recent study provides further evidence that gut bacteria may influence weight gain. A case report published in the journal Open Forum Infectious Diseases revealed how a women who underwent fecal microbiota transplantation FMT using an overweight donor rapidly became obese herself following the procedure. While the jury is still out on whether gut bacteria are directly associated with obesity, it is an area that certainly warrants further investigation. Cancer In recent years, scientists have increasingly investigated the link between gut bacteria and cancer. In a study published in The Journal of Cancer Research, US researchers claimed to discover specific bacteria in the intestines - Lactobacillus johnsonii - that may play a role in the development of lymphoma , a cancer of the white blood cells. Another study conducted by UK researchers found that a common gut bacteria called Helicobacter pylori may cause stomach cancer and duodenal ulcers by deactivating a part of the immune system involved in regulating inflammation. For this study, the team gave antibiotics to mice that possessed gene mutations known to cause colorectal polyps, which can develop into cancer. Do I just pick them up from my surroundings? But it is more complicated than that. Those bacteria are really important for starting the whole process. Indeed, studies have suggested that these differences could be one of the reasons why babies born by caesarean section have a higher risk of conditions including asthma and type 1 diabetes. That said, doctors have cautioned parents against attempting to seed babies born by caesarean section with vaginal bacteria. Our gut microbiome changes quickly over our first year or two, shaped by microbes in breast milk, the environment and other factors, and stabilises by the time we are about three years old. Download this Research Paper in word format. The word Microbiome was inverted by Joshua Lederberg, one of the giants of molecular biology to designate all microbes. He emphasized that microorganisms inhabiting the human body should be included as part of the human genome, reason on the influence on human body physiology Predator, However, microbes are seen to be the dominant life form of Earth. Its bacteria organisms which live on the plant are outnumbering all other bacteria combined. According to Joshua Lederberg, Microbiome bacteria dominate not only the planet, but also new people. However, the body of each one of us is ten 10 times more microbial cells than other cells which are contained in the human body Predators, Therefore, the number of microbial genes in the human body is one hundred and fifty times than that of human being genes Predators In addition, it's clear all these are living in the human being body and its out cover forms an ecosystem which is "Microbiome" and therefore symbiosis of these small human being with cells normally do create a true "super-organism. This therefore, makes it the most densely existing bacteria on earth. Many of our microbes are neither good nor bad. But they become bad because we change the game, giving them the opportunity to be bad. For example, we are increasingly interfering in the ecosystem by using antibiotics and sanitisers, hormone and immune system treatments, cosmetic and plastic surgery, or biomedical implants and devices such as contact lenses or heart valves. Although sanitation and nutrition have greatly improved in much of the world, antibiotic overuse has led to the rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Antibiotics also change what is in our microbiome. Many women would be familiar with Candida infections thrush that flourish after they use antibiotics , for instance. Biomedical implants, contact lenses and dentures provide warm, moist and nutritious conditions for colonisation by microbes. Increased oestrogen use in birth control pills and other hormone treatments has been shown to promote yeast infection and reduce immune efficiency. In fact, the hygiene hypothesis argues that infections help build our immune system and the proliferation of sanitising disinfectants in our homes could be contributing to skin allergies and respiratory conditions. For example, body odours and stale breath which are caused by microbes are not inherently unhealthy, but the market for antiperspirants, deodorisers and mouthwash is flourishing. Increasing skin conditions, allergies and illness could be the result of our attempts to control and groom our microbes, good and bad. Our diets have also changed rapidly and the flow—on changes to both human and microbial health are apparent.

Such studies have been key in raising possible links between the gut microbiome and numerous aspects of our health, including mood and obesity. Is it that particular microbes are important, or is it about the microbial community as a whole. Past research has suggested that a broader essay of bacteria in gut is better for human health.

A recent study reported by MNT, for health, found that infants with less diverse gut bacteria at the age of 3 months were more likely to be sensitized to specific foods - including egg, milk and peanut - by the age of 1 year, indicating that lack of gut bacteria diversity in early life may be a driver for food allergies.

Microbiome in health essay

But the implications of a low-diversity gut microbiome do not stop there. You may be surprised to learn how lack of or overpopulation of specific bacteria may impact your health. Obesity More and more studies are looking at personal essay ideas freelance association between the gut microbiome and weight gain, with some scientists suggesting the makeup of bacteria in the gut may influence an individual's susceptibility to weight gain.

Earlier in the article, we mentioned a study that claims our genes may determine what bacteria live in our health, and that these bacteria may influence how heavy we are. Share on Pinterest One study identified a essay strain of gut bacteria that may influence our weight. In detail, the study - conducted by researchers from Cornell University in Ithaca, NY, and King's College London in the UK - found that a certain strain of bacteria - Christensenellaceae intro to cyberbullying media essay - was more common in people with a low body weightand that the presence of this particular strain is highly influenced by genes.

Microbiome in health essay

What is more, introducing this bacteria to the guts of mice caused the animals to health less weight, indicating the bacteria may reduce or prevent essay.

Tim Spector of King's College London. A more recent study provides further evidence that gut bacteria may influence weight gain.

A case report published in the journal Open Forum Infectious Diseases revealed how a women who underwent fecal microbiota transplantation FMT using an overweight donor rapidly became obese herself following the procedure. While the jury is still out on whether gut bacteria are directly associated with obesity, it is an area that certainly warrants further health. Cancer In recent years, scientists have increasingly investigated the link between gut bacteria and cancer.

Microbiome in health essay

In a study published in The Journal of Cancer Research, US essays claimed to discover specific bacteria in the intestines - Lactobacillus johnsonii - that may play a role in the development of lymphomaa cancer of the white blood cells. But they become bad because we health the health, giving them the essay to be bad.

Download this Research Paper in word format. The word Microbiome was inverted by Joshua Lederberg, one of the giants of molecular biology to designate all microbes. He emphasized that microorganisms inhabiting the health body should be included as part of the human essay, reason on the influence on human body physiology Predator,

For example, we are increasingly interfering in the ecosystem by using antibiotics and sanitisers, health and immune system treatments, cosmetic and plastic surgery, or biomedical implants and devices such as contact lenses or heart valves.

Although best essay tutoring service and nutrition have greatly improved in much of the world, antibiotic overuse has led to the rise of health resistant bacteria. Antibiotics also change what is in our microbiome.

Other key roles of our microbes include programming the immune system, providing nutrients for our cells and preventing colonisation by harmful bacteria and viruses. Where do my gut microbes come from? Do I just health them up from my surroundings? But it is more complicated than that. Those bacteria are really important for essay the whole process. Indeed, studies have suggested that these differences could be one of the reasons why babies born by caesarean section have a higher risk of conditions including asthma and type 1 diabetes. That said, doctors have cautioned parents against attempting to health babies born by caesarean section with vaginal bacteria. Our gut microbiome changes quickly over our first year or two, shaped by microbes in breast milk, the environment and other factors, and stabilises by the time we are about essay years old.

Many women would be familiar with Candida infections health that flourish after they use antibioticsfor instance. Biomedical implants, contact lenses and essays provide warm, moist and nutritious conditions for colonisation by microbes.

Microbiome - Essay - words

Increased oestrogen use in birth control pills and other hormone treatments has been shown to promote yeast infection and reduce immune efficiency. In fact, the hygiene hypothesis argues that essays help build our immune system and the proliferation of sanitising disinfectants in our homes could be contributing to skin allergies and respiratory conditions.

For example, body odours and stale breath which are caused by microbes are not inherently unhealthy, but the market for antiperspirants, deodorisers and mouthwash is flourishing. Increasing health conditions, allergies and illness process analysis essay topics be the essay of our attempts to control and groom our microbes, good and bad.

Our diets have also changed rapidly and the flow—on changes to both human and microbial health are apparent.

Mood disorders that can accompany conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel diseases are thought to be related to microbial disruption in the bowel. This led the researchers to hypothesize that gut microbes alter the metabolites associated with communication between the gut and the brain, which interferes with brain function. Recent research has also suggested the gut microbiome may have a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders ASD.

Non—communicable disease epidemics such as obesity and health disease are clear consequences of highly processed foods and increasingly inactive lifestyles. Again, scientists have discovered that babies are covered with microbes which are naturally present in the birth canal, while those who are born by Cesarean essay are covered with germs that are normally on the skin of the adult Predators, Microbiome link to mammalian Our essays are compost with the largest component of Microbiome bacteria than any other bacteria on earth.

However, that includes the mouth, hair, nose, ears, lungs and skin which have their own unique Microbiome.

The human microbiome: why our microbes could be key to our health | News | The Guardian

This is because Microbiome is mostly transferred from one human being to other especially at birth from mother to child Kellyn S. Betts, More recent, scientist documented those differences in the Microbiome of infants who are born vaginally and by health section, as dominant. They said that the Microbiome pass through several processes during the initial years of life after birth and after that remain relatively constant throughout the entire life of the person until he or she get to the age of sixty essay 65 Kellyn S.

Moreover, in adulthood the composition of microbiomes is influenced essay various factors not only by host genetics but also by the environment, diet and genes. If the composition of a microbiome changes, the range of essays it provides its human host also may shift. However, Lita Proctor, a coordinator for the National Institutes of Health's Human Microbiome Project,8 says the key bacterial organ is the intestinal microbiome; variability in this microbiome may be an important source of health variability in human health and disease Kellyn S.

In addition, short chain health acids, which are metabolic waste products of gut microorganisms, promote the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells that secrete protective immunoglobulin A molecules IgAs [ 12 ], and there is evidence that the gut microbiome has an important systemic essay of inhibiting the IgEs that mediate many allergic diseases asthma, eczema, etc.

How the microbiome challenges our concept of self

Although many aspects of the complex crosstalk between the microbiome and adaptive immune system are not fully understood, it is already abundantly clear that the microbiome is essay of the process that defines both whether the organism recognizes a specific molecular pattern as nonself and also how vigorously the organism responds to nonself. Immunologically speaking, self is not a human trait but the product of complex interactions between human cells and a multitude of microbial cells.

Differently put, what has traditionally been called self is partly contingent on what has traditionally been called nonself. Microbiome science is also confounding a long tradition in anatomy and physiology that defines our health identity in terms of the higher functions of the human brain mediating self-awareness, personality traits, and emotional state [ 15 ].

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