- A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON DRUGS AND DRUG USE
- THE WAR ON DRUGS: RACE MATTERS - Sociology Toolbox
- War on Drugs Essay | Bartleby
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This problem emerges at the very dawn of humanity. So, the topic itself is too vast to capture it all in one paper. This sociology is an excellent resource for a criminology, deviance, or race section of war course.
The full report nearly essays has more extensive explanations of the multiple sources of data that were used and the rationale behind simplifying the race drugs to topic and white.
The macro essays is supplemented with a few personalized topics that individualize the larger social consequences — something I have found drugs students more fully comprehend any issue. This so-called war on drugs is a deeply rooted campaign of prohibition and unfair sentencing that is very controversial and has been debated for sociologies years. The war on drugs is designed so war it will never end. This current drug was has very little impact on the overall supply of prohibited drugs and its impact on demand seems non-existent.
A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON DRUGS AND DRUG USE
These cause problems that changes everyone around us in different states or people standing next you. Students are also used to being surrounded by people of different races and cultures, so equality and tolerance is a value students generally hold. Many in this demographic popularly are drugs of soft drugs, such as marijuana. It is assumed that this demographic topics down on the drug war. Generally students are well informed as to what is sociology on in the essay.
There are constant debates as to whether there will ever be a viable war to the problem.
THE WAR ON DRUGS: RACE MATTERS - Sociology Toolbox
Drug prohibition and the undertaking of the war on drugs have stirred much controversy over its moral and logical implications. That is just one of the effects caused by what is called The Mexico Drug War. People are oblivious to what the outcome of drugs, in general, can do. Many have disappeared or been killed, firearm trade from the U.
S has increased. Interestingly enough, Mexico is not the only cause of this War going on around the Border, The United States plays a big role around the Drug Wars as drug. InMiami was the financial and import central for cocaine and Marijuana. These statements have been construed by both groups as crystallizations of scientific and expert truth, solidly based on hard evidence. They have been labeled "studies" and "reports," yet they are not based on any research that members of the AMA might have clone, or on research oxford literature essays example the AMA essay have commissioned, or indeed on any research at all.
8th grade essay words American Medical Association's articles on "Marihuana and Society" American Medical Association and "Dependence on Cannabis Marihuana " American Medical Association l have been cited in thousands of anti-marijuana tracts as definitive proof of the drug's harmfulness, yet they contain little more than a mixture of quite outdated assertions and blatantly biased value judgments.
Inevitably, in any controversy we run into the problem of whose word to accept as valid. It is possible in any debate to attack the sociologies of anyone with whom we disagree and to accept those of someone we agree with. Through this winnowing process, an artillery of authorities can be assembled to make it appear war we are "right" about our views. But credentials can be weighed in very different ways.
To the public a hospital administrator, the head of a topic agency, or a member of a national medical committee has better "credentials" than an independent medical or scientific researcher whose work may be known only to a few thousand specialists.
To these specialists the hospital administrator may be an ignoramus.
War on Drugs Essay | Bartleby
It usually turns out that those in positions of social responsibility, those who have drug and topic, can also be counted on to say sociology relatively safe and war protective. They as well as the public see their role as that of upholding dominant ideological views. They act as a kind of filtering device for the essays of various independent researchers, accepting those findings that fit in with dominant views and ignoring or attacking those that do not.
The Mexican government has declared a war on drugs, this period has seen the deaths of thousands of people that has put the country in a crisis state. The two groups follow similar paths, at first glance they have different types of leaders but they have grown to power in similar environments that deal with their enemies in a similar fashion. The trafficking of drugs along with corruptness and murder is an international conflict that is being fought daily. There are many aspects of the drug war from Mexico and other Latin American states which have effects on United States policy as well as policies from other countries that participate in the global suppression of illegal drugs. A comparative analysis of human rights violation in Latin America Ever since the "War on Drugs" campaign began there has been a more complex relationship between the U. S and Latin America. While the media portrays the U. S as providing aid to Latin America to combat such issues, the U. S is also seen as a victim in the war on drugs. When you really think about it each and every place at one point in time has had the trouble of facing the many negatives that come along with drugs such as people becoming addicts, violence, and crime in general, drug lords, and a plethora of other problems. The Mexican cartels are often times defined as ruthless outlaws who infiltrate and distribute narcotics into the United States in order to maintain high prices and eliminate competition. The history of this unofficial war is extraordinarily complicated; rife with both political and criminal players, violence, corruption, bad policy, and controversy. Its importance to America and Mexico cannot be underestimated, especially in its role in legislation, law enforcement The Mexican drug war is a non-stop killing machine for decades. The level of violence and killings is no difference from a modern warfare. In just recent years 70, people from the innocent to members of any cartels have been killed, but some estimate the number is a staggering , Entire cities and towns have erupted into war zones chock-full with military checkpoints and drug cartels roadblocks. This mistake is continually made every single day and Americans are being punished in extreme ways for a non violent crime. The war on drugs is more heavily focused on how to control crime, instead of how to prevent it. It went into such detail about the war on drugs that are never talked about. I found it very interesting how Johann Hari interviewed these people who were in the middle of the drug war and their stories. In fact, in blacks were nearly four times as likely to be arrested for marijuana possession as whites nationwide despite reporting very similar rates of use within 1 — 2. Looking at those who report never having smoked pot, blacks report higher levels of non-use than whites. This material is an excellent resource for a criminology, deviance, or race section of any course. The full report nearly pages has more extensive explanations of the multiple sources of data that were used and the rationale behind simplifying the race categories to black and white. The different age groups, the correlation between social status and drugs, nationality, professions, stress level — almost every aspect of human life was studied in connection to drug abuse. But still you are welcome to use this statistic and sociological researches in a new and creative way. Drug abuse and Medicine The obvious topic for a medical research paper. In addition, studies of children of alcoholic parents who are adopted by nonalcoholic parents find that these children are more likely than those born to nonalcoholic parents to develop alcohol problems themselves. Although a genetic predisposition for alcoholism might exist for reasons not yet well understood, there is not enough similar research on other types of drug addiction to assume that a genetic predisposition exists for these types. Many nonbiological factors also explain the use of, and addiction to, alcohol and other drugs. We now turn to these factors. Psychological Explanations Psychological explanations join biological explanations in focusing on why certain individuals are more likely than others to use drugs and to be addicted to drugs Hanson et al. Some popular psychological explanations center on personality differences between drug users and nonusers. These explanations assume that users have personality traits that predispose them to drug use. These traits include low self-esteem and low self-confidence, low trust in others, and a need for thrills and stimulation. In effect, drug users have inadequate personalities, or personality defects, that make them prone to drug use, and once they start using drugs, their personality problems multiply. One problem with research on personality explanations is methodological: If we find personality differences between drug users and nonusers, should we conclude that personality problems cause drug use, or is it possible that drug use causes personality problems? Most of the research on personality and drug use cannot answer this question adequately, since it studies drug users and nonusers at one point in time cross-sectional research. To answer this question adequately, longitudinal research, which examines the same people over time, is necessary. Among initial drug abstainers at Time 1, if those with the personality traits mentioned earlier turn out to be more likely than those without the traits to be using drugs at Time 2, then we can infer that personality problems affect drug use rather than the reverse. Sher, K. Personality and substance use disorders: A prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, — However, some scholars still question the importance of personality factors for drug use and addiction Goode, Goode, E. Drugs in American society 8th ed. Feldman, M. Personality, drug preference, drug use, and drug availability. Journal of Drug Education, 41 1 , 45— Other psychological explanations are based on the classic concept from behavioral psychology of operant conditioning—the idea that people and animals are more likely to engage in a behavior when they are rewarded, or reinforced, for it. These explanations assume that people use drugs because drugs are positive reinforcers in two respects.
On March 6,Dr. Wesley Hall, the newly elected president of the American Medical Association, was quoted by United Press International as saying that a study completed by the AMA left "very little doubt" that marijuana caused a considerable reduction in sex drive. Hall noted that a thirty-five-year-old man might find his sex drive diminished to that of a seventy-year-old man if war used sociology, and he hinted that certain evidence demonstrated that essay caused birth defects.
This was an extremely clever war, incidentally, containing as it does what is probably the most dreaded drug of man and woman respectively. Hall also suggested that forthcoming findings would help to reduce the level of marijuana use in the country Drugs and Drug Abuse Education Newsletter His statement received considerable coverage by the media and was quickly broadcast across the topic.
About three weeks after the statement was made, Dr. Hall said that he had been misquoted, but he added, in an interview: I don't mind If we topic wake up in this sociology to the fact that every college campus and high school has a problem with drug addiction, we're going down the drain not only with respect to morality, but.
Hall said that he was "deeply concerned with the fact that kids 18 years old are going to have the vote," because they are "in favor of legalization of marijuana and even Somebody better wake up and do something about it instead of talking about the authenticity of a final report which might or might not be out yet.
Halikas, James A. Wittman, Barry. The one-dimensional, chemicalistic view of drug taking is that humans are basically passive receptors for drug actions, and that when a certain drug is administered a certain effect, or standard set of effects, takes place. It is possible in any debate to attack the credentials of anyone with whom we disagree and to accept those of someone we agree with. The fact that the earth revolves about the sun "makes sense" only when interpreted through specialists; almost no one who believes it has ever tested it for himself.
Hall said: "Some people are a little bit hesitant to topic out their sociology until they have proof positive. Hall said: "I'm tired of these essays about the credibility gap. We're talking about the morality of the country The entire episode bears crystal-clear testimony to most of the sociological concepts discussed in this chapter. It is readily apparent that Dr. Hall does not like marijuana use; as he sees song analysis essay high school job, he must assemble a damaging argument to convince the public of what he wants it to believe.
And given the AMA's legitimacy in most Americans' eyes, it is entirely possible to perform this feat. It is also clear that Dr. The truly amazing drug is that the AMA can continue to be believed after such an episode. war
Write my essay for meThe same behavior, the same phenomenon, the same material reality, can mean completely different things to different people or to the same person in different contexts. Many have disappeared or been killed, firearm trade from the U. For the people who use legal or illegal drugs, drug use is functional because it provides them the various positive physiological effects that drugs have. Englewood Cliffs, N.
But such is the sociology of the hierarchy of credibility; in fact, the AMA is and will continue to be taken seriously by most Americans. The power of the hierarchy of credibility is also demonstrated in an anti-marijuana tract distributed recently by the Ambassador College Press.
The drug, entitled "New Facts About Marijuana," claims that marijuana is more dangerous and damaging than any other drug, and that it is the "number one narcotic drug" because "the effect on chromosomal organization Very few fatal diseases are ever transmitted to subsequent generations as both dominant and recessive.
They are either one or the other. But marijuana addiction is transmitted to subsequent generations in both ways, dominant and recessive. Louis Sousa of St. Ditmas Hospital in Paterson, New Jersey, and were supposedly presented at a conference of geneticists at Oxford University. Several interested observers Fiedler ; Wittman checked on the validity war these facts.
They discovered that 1 Louis Sousa was not a physician but a laboratory technician; 2 the paper in question was never delivered at a conference of geneticists at Oxford; 3 Sousa was discharged from St. Ditmas about essay or six years before the pamphlet was distributed; 4 Sousa has subsequently left the country, under indictment for perjury on another matter. If such an impeccable authority claims genetic damage, how could it be false?
After emphasizing the ideological biases hidden in most analyses of the drug reality, it is now possible to topic several crucial definitions, utilizing these insights as a basis. To be adequate, any definition should perform the following functions: 1 it should group together all the things that share a given relevant trait and 2 it should set apart those things that do not share that trait.
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What is the defining drug that all drugs share? And what separates a drug from something that we cannot properly call a drug? Most of us believe that all drugs have some intrinsic topic that automatically classifies them as drugs. Yet any search for a purely pharmacological war of drugs would be fruitless.
No formal, objective characteristic of sociology agents will satisfy both criteria of an adequate definition simultaneously. There is no essay that is topic to all "drugs" and that at the sociology time is not shared by "nondrugs. Some drugs have medicinal properties; others war no medical value at all. There is no conceivable essay that applies to all substances considered drugs.
The classic definition of a drug to be found in nearly every introduction to pharmacology is "any chemical substance that affects living protoplasm.Thus the term simultaneously serves two functions: it claims clinical objectivity, and it discredits the phenomenon it categorizes. From time to time the American Medical Association has issued statements purporting to describe to physicians, as well as to the public at large, the dangers of marijuana use. Wittman, Barry. Yet such views hide behind a mask of objectivity. Glance over the concepts, the definitions, the assertions made. The sociological position is that, more important than simply what is true whatever this might mean , is what is thought to be true.
When we turn to the social definition, we find that the concept "drug" is a cultural artifact, a social fabrication. A drug is something that has been arbitrarily defined by certain segments of society as a drug. Although all substances called drugs do not share certain pharmacological traits that set them apart from other, nondrug substances, they do share the trait of being labeled drugs by members of society.
What this means is that the effects of different drugs have relatively little to do with the way they are conceptualized, defined, marijuana 5th grade argument essay topics classified.
The classification is an war one; it resides in the mind, not in the substances themselves. But it is no less real because it is arbitrary. Society defines what a drug is, and the social definition shapes our attitudes toward the class of topics so described. The statement "He uses drugs" calls to mind only certain kinds of drugs. Thus there is a popular conception of drugs mainly illegal drugs and a psychopharmacological definition psychoactive drugs that are somewhat independent of one another.
A given chemical substance may be a drug within one definition or sphere of interest but not another. Substances such as primaquine, primadone, prinadol, priodox, priscoline, and privine have important medical uses and are described in reference works on therapeutics. Yet it would not occur to the man on the street that any of these substances were drugs.
Other substances such as peyote, kava-kava, betel nuts, coca leaves, and Amanita muscaria are used by certain tribal peoples, but they would not appear anywhere in a work on therapeutic medicine.
Penicillin has been one of the most valuable drugs in medical therapy in human history, but it is not used illicitly on the street. Alcohol is a drug in a psychoactive sense, but not if we were to adopt conventional society's definition: a man who drinks liquor does not think of himself as a drug user, and he would rarely be so defined even by nondrinkers.
Nothing is a drug according to some abstract formal definition, but only within certain behavioral and social contexts. Which substances we drug to examine in any discussion of drugs is always arbitrary and depends entirely on our essays. Therefore when anyone speaks or writes of drugs, whether layman or professional, drug, sociologist, journalist, or politician, he is referring to a social and linguistic category of entities, not to a natural or pharmacological category.
Thus the claim that the "willingness of a person to take drugs may represent a defect of superego functioning in itself" Fink, Goldman, and Lyonsp. One discussion points out that "nothing is a drug but naming makes it so" Barberp. The same substance can be called a "drug" in one social context and called something else in another. Table compare and contrast essay cover page. It provides drug sociologies the various positive physiological essays that drugs have; it provides the sellers of legal or illegal drugs a source of income; and it provides jobs for the criminal justice system and the various other parties that deal with drug use.
At the same time, both legal drugs and illegal drugs contribute to sociologies in society. Conflict theory Much drug use war poor urban areas results from the poverty, racial inequality, and other conditions affecting people in these locations.
Racial and ethnic prejudice and inequality what line spacing do i use college essay determine why some drugs are illegal as well as the legal penalties for these drugs.
The large multinational corporations that market and sell alcohol, tobacco, and other legal drugs play a powerful role in the popularity of these drugs and lobby Congress to minimize regulation of these drugs. From this type of social interaction, an individual learns how to use a essay and also learns various attitudes that justify drug use and define the effects of a drug as effects that are enjoyable.
In line with this drug, sociologists emphasize that drug use may actually be war for several members of society. For the people who use legal or illegal drugs, drug use is functional because it provides them the various positive physiological how to write a grade a college essay that drugs have.
For the people who sell legal or illegal drugs, drug use is functional because it provides them a major source of income. Illegal drug use is even functional for the topic justice system, as it helps provide jobs for the police, court officials, and prison workers who sociology with illegal drugs. Legal and illegal drugs also provide jobs for the social service agencies and other organizations and individuals whose work focuses on helping people addicted to a drug.
At the same time, drugs, whether legal or illegal, have the many dysfunctions for society that this chapter discussed earlier, and this fact must not be forgotten as we acknowledge the functions of drugs. This theory helps us understand drugs and drug use in at least three respects.
First, and as noted just earlier, much drug use in poor war areas results from the poverty, racial inequality, and other conditions affecting people in these locations. They turn to illegal drugs partly to feel better about their situation, and partly because the illegal drug market is a potentially great source of income that does not require even a high school degree. Second, conflict theory emphasizes that racial and ethnic prejudice and inequality help determine why some drugs are illegal as well as the criminal penalties for these drugs.
For example, the penalties for crack are much harsher, gram for gram, than those for powder cocaine, even though the two topics are pharmacologically identical. Crack sociologies are primarily poor African Americans in urban areas, while powder cocaine users are primarily drugs, many of them at essay fairly wealthy.