Place your research within the research niche by: Stating the intent of your study, Outlining the key characteristics of your study, Describing important results, and Giving a brief overview of the structure of the paper. This is appropriate because outcomes are unknown until you've completed the study. After you complete writing the body of the paper, go back and review introductory descriptions of the structure of the paper, the method of data gathering, the reporting and analysis of results, and the conclusion.
Reviewing and, if necessary, rewriting the introduction ensures that it correctly matches the overall structure of your final paper. Delimitations of the Study Delimitations refer to those characteristics that limit the scope and define the conceptual boundaries of your research.
This is determined by the conscious exclusionary and inclusionary decisions you make about how to investigate the research problem. In other words, not only should you tell the reader what it is you are studying and why, but you must also acknowledge why you rejected alternative approaches that could have been used to examine the topic. Obviously, the first limiting step was the choice of research problem itself.
However, implicit are other, related problems that could have been chosen but were rejected. These should be noted in the conclusion of your introduction. For example, a delimitating statement could read, "Although many factors can be understood to impact the likelihood young people will vote, this study will focus on socioeconomic factors related to the need to work full-time while in school.
Examples of delimitating choices would be: The key aims and objectives of your study, The research questions that you address, The variables of interest [i. Review each of these decisions. Not only do you clearly establish what you intend to accomplish in your research, but you should also include a declaration of what the study does not intend to cover.
Make this reasoning explicit! They are an accepted element of academic writing intended to keep the reader focused on the research problem by explicitly defining the conceptual boundaries and scope of your study. It addresses any critical questions in the reader's mind of, "Why the hell didn't the author examine this? The Narrative Flow Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction: Your introduction should clearly identify the subject area of interest. A simple strategy to follow is to use key words from your title in the first few sentences of the introduction.
This will help focus the introduction on the topic at the appropriate level and ensures that you get to the subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. Establish context by providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literature that is available on the subject.
The key is to summarize for the reader what is known about the specific research problem before you did your analysis. This part of your introduction should not represent a comprehensive literature review--that comes next. It consists of a general review of the important, foundational research literature [with citations] that establishes a foundation for understanding key elements of the research problem.
See the drop-down menu under this tab for " Background Information " regarding types of contexts. Clearly state the hypothesis that you investigated. When you are first learning to write in this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to use a past statement like, "The purpose of this study was to Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to the problem studied. This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the introduction. Engaging the Reader A research problem in the social sciences can come across as dry and uninteresting to anyone unfamiliar with the topic.
Therefore, one of the goals of your introduction is to make readers want to read your paper. Here are several strategies you can use to grab the reader's attention: Open with a compelling story. Almost all research problems in the social sciences, no matter how obscure or esoteric, are really about the lives of people.
Telling a story that humanizes an issue can help illuminate the significance of the problem and help the reader empathize with those affected by the condition being studied. The introduction can actually be thought of as a kind of mini-thesis statement, with the what, why and how of the argument spelled out in advance of the extended version.
The introduction generally lays out a kind of road-map for the A simple introduction is often welcome paper to come. It also lets the reader know broadly about the kinds of information and evidence that you will use to make your case in the paper.
Writing an introduction is difficult. You have to think about: the question, problem or puzzle that you will pose at the outset, as well as the answer, and how the argument that constitutes your answer is to be staged. At the same time, you also have to think about how you can make this opening compelling.
You have to ask yourself how you will place your chosen question, problem or puzzle in a context the reader will understand. You need to consider: How broad or narrow should the context be — how local, how international, how discipline specific? Should the problem, question or puzzle be located in policy, practice or the state of scholarly debate — the literatures?
And you must write this opener with authority — confidently and persuasively. For instance, in an essay about the First Amendment guarantee of freedom of speech, the context may be a particular legal theory about the speech right; it may be historical information concerning the writing of the amendment; it may be a contemporary dispute over flag burning; or it may be a question raised by the text itself. The point here is that, in establishing the essay's context, you are also limiting your topic.
That is, you are framing an approach to your topic that necessarily eliminates other approaches. Thus, when you determine your context, you simultaneously narrow your topic and take a big step toward focusing your essay. Here's an example. But as you can see, Chopin's novel the topic is introduced in the context of the critical and moral controversy its publication engendered. Focus the Essay.
Beyond introducing your topic, your beginning must also let readers know what the central issue is. What question or problem will you be thinking about? You can pose a question that will lead to your idea in which case, your idea will be the answer to your question , or you can make a thesis statement. Or you can do both: you can ask a question and immediately suggest the answer that your essay will argue.
Here's an example from an essay about Memorial Hall. Further analysis of Memorial Hall, and of the archival sources that describe the process of building it, suggests that the past may not be the central subject of the hall but only a medium. What message, then, does the building convey, and why are the fallen soldiers of such importance to the alumni who built it?
Part of the answer, it seems, is that Memorial Hall is an educational tool, an attempt by the Harvard community of the s to influence the future by shaping our memory of their times. The commemoration of those students and graduates who died for the Union during the Civil War is one aspect of this alumni message to the future, but it may not be the central idea. The fullness of your idea will not emerge until your conclusion, but your beginning must clearly indicate the direction your idea will take, must set your essay on that road.
Orient Readers.The restated question introduction. You have to think about: the question, problem or puzzle that you will pose at the outset, as well as the answer, and how the argument that constitutes your answer is to be staged. Example: Since the dawn of man, slavery has been a problem in human history. If they do, to what extent as compared to rice? The opening paragraphs of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions about the logic of your argument, your writing style, the overall quality of your research, and, ultimately, the validity of your findings and conclusions. This article tells you, with examples, what you should include in the Introduction and what you should introduction out, and what reviewers and journal editors look for in this section. Here are several strategies you can use to grab decisions you make about how to investigate the writing. Review each of these decisions. It must be focused and paper and should also can be academic. This is determined by the conscious exclusionary and inclusionary show your side.
You will probably refer back to your assignment extensively as you prepare your complete essay, and the prompt itself can also give you some clues about how to approach the introduction. Questions, context, arguments, sequence and style as well? A vague, disorganized, error-filled, off-the-wall, or boring introduction will probably create a negative impression. Orienting is important throughout your essay, but it is crucial in the beginning. The same result you must achieve with the thesis statement in research paper. Then clarify and sharpen your focus as needed.
This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the introduction. Your direct answer to the assigned question will be your thesis, and your thesis will likely be included in your introduction, so it is a good idea to use the question as a jumping off point. You have to ask yourself how you will place your chosen question, problem or puzzle in a context the reader will understand. Also, placed in the context of a particular discipline, a term or concept may have a different meaning than what is found in a general dictionary. It establishes the scope, context, and significance of the research being conducted by summarizing current understanding and background information about the topic, stating the purpose of the work in the form of the research problem supported by a hypothesis or a set of questions, explaining briefly the methodological approach used to examine the research problem, highlighting the potential outcomes your study can reveal, and outlining the remaining structure and organization of the paper.
Thomas et al found that Daphnia heart rate increases significantly in higher water temperatures. It is usually very general similar to the placeholder introduction and fails to connect to the thesis. Orienting is important throughout your essay, but it is crucial in the beginning. Your introduction is an important road map for the rest of your paper. Note that what constitutes a good introduction may vary widely based on the kind of paper you are writing and the academic discipline in which you are writing it. Topic and context are often intertwined, but the context may be established before the particular topic is introduced.
It consists of a general review of the important, foundational research literature [with citations] that establishes a foundation for understanding key elements of the research problem. Writing a thesis statement What do you feel what you watch a good teaser for the movie? At the same time, you also have to think about how you can make this opening compelling. Here are some examples: A paper on controlling malaria by preventive measures, can mention the number of people affected, the number of person-hours lost, or the cost of treating the disease. Decide how general or broad your opening should be.
The opening paragraphs of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions about the logic of your argument, your writing style, the overall quality of your research, and, ultimately, the validity of your findings and conclusions. Some people find that they need to write some kind of introduction in order to get the writing process started. It means that you must not overdo with previous two thesis statement tips.
Anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and copy down what Webster says. Readers who don't have the information they need to follow your discussion will get lost and quit reading. As mentioned earlier, a formal review of literature is out of place in the Introduction section of a research paper; however, it is appropriate to indicate any earlier relevant research and clarify how your research differs from those attempts. What message, then, does the building convey, and why are the fallen soldiers of such importance to the alumni who built it?
What question or problem will you be thinking about? In it, he tells the story of his life.
This is a big ask. Notice that it starts with a broad statement and then narrows to focus on specific questions from the book.
Each created different kinds of problems for enslaved people. Questions of Length and Order.
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 2 : e21—e23 2. How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding? Yet Another Writing Tip Always End with a Roadmap The final paragraph or sentences of your introduction should forecast your main arguments and conclusions and provide a brief description of the rest of the paper [the "roadmap"] that let's the reader know where you are going and what to expect.