However, in situations where HIV testing is normative and frequent e. Multi-level models incorporating relevant demographic, epidemiological, risk behaviour and prevention parameters can be generated to show how a given educational programme may reduce infection Auerbach et al.
Furthermore, in a climate of fiscal restraint, cost—benefit analyses setting the cost of the intervention against the medical care and other savings that would be achieved through averting HIV infections could be invaluable for garnering support for a particular intervention.
Both of these approaches offer ideal ways of engaging politicians and other decision makers in HIV work. A landmark in the development of educational evaluation was US domestic reaction to the launch of the Soviet Union's Sputnik I in and the subsequent launching of a person into space in Haney, ; Glaser and Silver, ; McBride and Schostak, Questions were raised about the quality and content of American education, prompting federal support for school curriculum improvement in a number of subjects, notably mathematics and science.
Large-scale federal and state-funded evaluations of teaching projects were implemented. The majority of these evaluations were quantitative and experimental in nature, and, in retrospect, yielded little by way of helpful information McBride and Schostak, Following a great deal of debate in the educational literature throughout the s and early s, a new breed of evaluators and several different prototypes of evaluation gradually emerged.
Experimental studies declined from a position as the pre-eminent research method to become by the mids just one among an array of techniques for gauging success Jenkins, This decline of experimental work in educational evaluation came about for many reasons. There is scope here [drawing on Jenkins, ] to mention only a few of the central issues of what was then a complex debate: the tradition of individual measurement associated with experimental studies attracted increasing criticism as being too narrowly focused.
Evaluators were encouraged to take a broader view of what is eligible for collection as evaluation data. Various audiences have different information needs not all of which can be met through traditional experiments. Education came to be seen as a dynamic process, subject to adaptation and change, with constant interaction between the end result and the means adopted to achieve it. It was considered bad evaluation practice to undervalue the experience of practitioners, in this case teachers in classrooms.
Other key players in the debate argued along similar lines. For example, Cronbach Cronbach, called for evaluation that is formative and ongoing, deploying a wide battery of techniques necessary to describe and assess the outcomes of educational programmes.
In his view, the greatest service evaluation can perform is to identify aspects of a course where revision is desirable. White White, argued that there is no single process of evaluation: there are many different forms of evaluation, all of which should play a part in assessing whether or not a new curriculum is any good. In contrast, a more social-anthropological paradigm with a wider information base, and emphasis on interpreting, explaining and discovering patterns of coherence and interconnectedness was asked for.
Jenkins Jenkins, summarized six prototypes of evaluation, each serving different purposes and employing different technologies and raising different problems. Table I sets out the main characteristics, strengths and limitations of each prototype. Admittedly, Table I oversimplifies the situation particularly in respect of important ways in which the alternative models supplement each other. The key message is that there is a variety of methods for evaluating programmes, serving a wide range of purposes and audiences.
The conventional paradigm of educational research i. The objective, goal-based model determines the degree to which desired changes in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour are actually taking place. Self-study or self-deliberation is an ongoing evaluative activity focussing on the process of educational change to gain knowledge critical in strengthening our efforts and those of our clients.
Action research, conducted by practitioners and involving the clients or community in the change process, fits within the self-study paradigm. Illuminative evaluation [embraced recently in the broader health education literature Tones, ] is concerned to portray day-to-day aspects of the setting: to isolate its significant features; delineate cycles of cause and effect; and comprehend relationships between beliefs and practices, and between organizational patterns and the responses of individuals Parlett and Hamilton, Decision-making models serve planning decisions at the various stages of programme development: at the outset when setting objectives to suit a particular context; when determining the procedure to follow; when evaluating how well the programme is proceeding; and at the conclusion when deciding whether to reject or recycle the project.
Similarly, scholars might acknowledge that while experimental methods such as RCTs have proven useful in measuring impact of HIV- and AIDS-related education in relation to biomedical markers [ 25 ], authors such as Van der Ven and Aggleton [ 26 ] and Kippax and Stephenson [ 27 ] have argued that such methods should not be granted the same status in HIV-related social science as they are in biomedicine, in part because their design cannot take into account the sophistication of the social and cultural issues they aim to study: in this case, sexual practices and human agency.
All three programmes were also clearly informed by an understanding of young people as social actors explicitly within the Brazilian programme and more implicitly in the UNICEF initiative. There is a vast literature on the concept of rights and rights-based approaches and how such terms could be understood see for instance [ 29—32 ]. Examining the three programmes in this category, one key difference emerged—programmes which draw on internationally recognized, formal human rights instruments to position themselves, and those initiatives more loosely informed by the concept of rights.
The rights informed programmes discussed here address both negative rights such as those prohibiting violence and positive rights aimed at enhancing capabilities and freedoms. Participation is a central concept running through the three rights informed HIV- and AIDS-related education initiatives, all stating that they wish to enable young people to participate in public life and to claim their rights.
However, there is not a consistent understanding of the term participation across the programmes identified. In the UNICEF MFMC programme, for instance [ 35 ], the notion of participation is interpreted in a rather restricted manner, simply meaning that young people are involved in the development and implementation of the programme. One of the fundamental difficulties within programmes that have a primary focus on rights is the way they conceptualize and facilitate young people to claim their rights beyond the abstract and arguably, individualistic terminology within the programme literature or in the actual sessions delivered to young people [ 31 , 36 , 37 ].
This applies not only to the concept of participation but also to fundamental rights-based notions such as accountability and rule of law. There appears to be no acknowledgement about the ambiguity of a concept such as pleasure and the need for it to be understood as relational and specific to particular contexts [ 34 , 38 ]. Difficulties in moving beyond what appears to be a rhetorical use of concepts such as participation, accountability and pleasure stems from a lack of engagement with broader political and philosophical theories on rights, and a disregard for the importance of social relationships for people's sense of well-being, as opposed to individual rights and entitlements [ 33 , 39 ].
In a similar vein, it could be argued that HIV- and AIDS-related education is an inherently contentious field in which moral values come into play [ 40 ]. What appears to distinguish between the different programmes in this category is the extent to which they can be seen to be explicitly or implicitly structured around particular conservative moral values regarding sexuality and sexual practices.
The abstinence education programme of the US Government under the G. Bush administration and the FAI initiative in Nigeria—which draw on traditional interpretations of respectively, Christian and Islamic values regarding sex and sexuality—adopt a clear moral position with regard to what is considered acceptable social and sexual behaviour [ 41 , 42 ]. On the other hand, the English Government's SRE programme works with a more implicit and subtle morality.
In this case, a compromise was seemingly struck between a public health agenda to reduce the prevalence of HIV and teenage pregnancy and a degree of moral conservatism [ 43 ]. Thus, for the two programmes explicitly structured around moral and oftentimes faith based values, the goal of avoiding or resisting sex before marriage, for instance, is seen as important in and of itself, this being in keeping with religious teaching.
In the case of the English SRE initiative, such goals were couched in terms of public health needs and personal development goals [ 44 ]. Monogamy means being in a sexual relationship with only one person and you both are having sex only with each other. Having one sexual partner greatly reduces your risk of contracting HIV, assuming neither of you are already infected with HIV.
All individuals should get tested for HIV at least once a year. Below are options for local testing sites: Pennsylvania Department of Health Indiana office — — Testing is free.
Rapid HIV antibody tests use blood, oral fluid, or urine to detect antibodies and take 10—20 minutes to receive results. If you test positive for HIV after taking an EIA or rapid antibody test, you will need to take another test, called Western blot test, to confirm that result. It can take up to two weeks to confirm a positive result.
These laws impose criminal penalties to HIV positive people that knowingly and potentially expose others to the virus. The number of people living with HIV worldwide is estimated to be 36 million, with 20 million people having died from the disease, giving a total number of 56 million being infected 1. In alone, 5. Of those cases, the most new cases occurred among gay and bisexual males. Furthermore young African American and Latino gay and bisexual males have been affected in higher numbers than any other group.
Individuals who become infected with HIV will find it harder to fight infections Avert. The most common method to become infected is through anal or vaginal sex without a condom HIV and Aids. AIDS is the disease that an individual with HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus has a chance of getting when their immune system becomes so damaged, opening up the body to many different illnesses.
According to medical research not everyone who has HIV will in fact be advance to the final stage of the disease, especially when caught and treated early on. This is not happening on one state, but it is happening in every state and country you could name. It has been a major cause of death in the world, which results in the situation becoming a public health concern. It poses a risk to future generations. The most affected generation being the most active age group, which are the younger ones who are not protecting themselves.
Provide a brief introduction to your overall plan and strategy for this proposal. Uganda used to be one of the most prevalent cases of HIV with around Even though the HIV rate is increasing at certain rates amongst adults Uganda has done a good job of keeping the HIV prevalence at a generalized rate.
The virus has plagued the African American communities and continues to disproportionately impact the black race more than any other racial or ethnical group. Most people do not really know what HIV stands for. HIV attacks the part of your body that fights disease better known as the immune system. The virus makes the immune system shut down and stop working. The immune system shutting down is the worst part about HIV not having any signs or symptoms to notify you of the virus is the worst part.
The disease has been plaguing South Africa as well as other countries throughout the continent. The initialism HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. This disease attacks and destroys the infection-fighting CD4 cells of the immune system. Loss of these cells makes it difficult for the body to fight infections.The abstinence education programme of the US Government under the G. After a person is infected with HIV, the body takes about 6 to 12 weeks and sometimes as. Changes in vision, particularly spots or flashes known as "floaters"may indicate an infection inside the eye long as 6 months to build up proteins to. However, this fact does not minimize the impact of other substances that may be used e.
Africa, but it eventually becomes the global disaster in the late 20th century Gus. Where the meetings were conducted, not all teachers were involved. Fortunately, it almost never occurs until the immune system is almost completely destroyed, so it is not usually the first symptom. On the contrary, change has been achieved through multiple approaches which operate synergistically—including community development, skills building, peer education, media campaigns, destigmatization, and counselling and testing Bye, ; King, ; Kippax et al. As a result, this causes the body to be terrible at protecting itself against diseases and other viruses.
Provide a brief introduction to your overall plan and strategy for this proposal. Other symptoms are a rash, mouth or genital ulcers, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and thrush. Substance abusers are at risk for HIV infection through sexual behaviors. The latter will, we hope, support governments and development agencies to think more systematically about the kind of HIV- and AIDS-related education programmes they wish to invest in. It is difficult but important to track the distribution of prevalence i. What appears to distinguish between the different programmes in this category is the extent to which they can be seen to be explicitly or implicitly structured around particular conservative moral values regarding sexuality and sexual practices.
Appendix Introduction This report includes a brief introduction on the HIV virus and then resources that are available to the individuals that have been affected by HIV. Sexual contact is also an effective transmission route for HIV because the tissues of the anus, rectum, and vagina are mucosal surfaces that can contain infected human body fluids and because these surfaces can be easily injured, allowing the virus to enter the body. A school-based AIDS education programme for secondary school students in Nigeria: a review of effectiveness. More and more people are being diagnosed with these life-threatening viruses. At the end of June , 30 States and the U. This decline of experimental work in educational evaluation came about for many reasons.
It is recognized that different technologies—goal-based evaluation, staff self-study, experimental control, illuminative evaluation and such-like—contribute worthwhile information according to the various purposes and audiences of the assessment. The newer antiviral medicines can even help the body restore much of its lost immune function. Then, the HIV cells attach their selves to new T cells, and infect those as well. Developing such a framework should foster a greater and more critical engagement between educational theory and the development of HIV- and AIDS-related education programmes, but should also provide the tools for practitioners, programme evaluators and policy makers to better understand differences between currently delivered programmes and some of their possible limitations and inconsistencies.
Thus, MSMs and African American and Hispanic women, their children, and adolescents within these communities are at greatest risk.
One anticipated obstacle—opposition from the community—was not found to be a problem, except for a few teachers in some schools. Role of circumcision in male infectivity A possible link between male circumcision and HIV infectivity was first observed during studies conducted in Kenya in the late s Cameron et al.
This disease attacks and destroys the infection-fighting CD4 cells of the immune system. Also, substance abusers may put themselves at risk for HIV infection by engaging in risky sex behaviors in exchange for powder or crack cocaine.
Pain therapy at this stage invariably requires narcotics. Importantly, scientifically informed HIV- and AIDS-related education is often presented as having the potential to provide learners with trustworthy information see for instance [ 9 : ].
As Bye Bye, correctly points out, research methods which might be used in the evaluation of individual-level behavioural change interventions may not be appropriate for the evaluation of community-level strategies that emphasize sociocultural change accomplished through a diffusion process. Seizures also can be caused by the cancer of the central nervous system called lymphoma. Men were selected from the drop-in centers, interviewed, given written informed consent and were then tested for HIV. The framework builds on earlier attempts by Homans and Aggleton [ 10 , 11 ] and Smith et al. Social issues increase the risk of HIV infection, thereby creating a counterproductive environment, where combatting the global epidemic effectively is hampered. So when the option to research something to do with sexuality arouse I felt this would definitely further my education about a lethal killer that is roaming this earth.
Substance abuse treatment serves as HIV prevention.
Many STDs that cause symptoms in men are asymptomatic in women. In hospice care, the individual is treated for pain and other discomforts and allowed to die of the disease. Africa, but it eventually becomes the global disaster in the late 20th century Gus.