Example: Finney, J. Time and again. Magazine: Author, A. Year, a month of Publication. Article title. Magazine Title, Volume Issue , pp.
Example: Tumulty, K. Should they stay or should they go? Time, 15 , Newspaper: Author, A. Year, Month Date of Publication. Magazine Title, pp. Rosenberg, G. An electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon. The New York Times, p. Website: Author, A. The tale of two Flaccos.
This format has principles rather than a set of specific rules to be followed. Citations to other sources helps readers expand their knowledge on a topic. In most social sciences disciplines, one of the most effective strategies for locating authoritative, relevant sources about a topic is to follow footnotes or references from known sources ["citation tracking"]. Citing other people's words and ideas indicates that you have conducted a thorough review of the literature on your topic and, therefore, you are reporting your research from an informed and critically engaged perspective.
This increases your credibility as the author of the work. Other researcher's ideas can be used to reinforce your arguments. In many cases, another researcher's arguments can act as the primary context from which you can emphasize the significance of your study and to provide supporting evidence about how you addressed the "So What? The ideas of other researchers can be used to explain reasons for alternative approaches.
If you disagree with a researcher's ideas or you believe there is a gap in understanding the research problem, your citations can serve as sources from which to argue an alternative viewpoint or the need to pursue a different course of action. Just as the ideas of other researchers can bolster your arguments, they can also detract from your credibility if their research is challenged. Properly citing sources prevents your reputation from being tarnished if the facts or ideas of those cited are proven to be inaccurate or off-base.
It prevents readers from concluding that you ignored or dismissed the findings of others, even if they are disputed. Ideas are considered intellectual property and there can be serious repercussions if you fail to cite where you got an idea from.
In the professional world, failure to cite other people's intellectual property ruins careers and reputations and can result in legal action. Citing sources during college will help get you in the habit of acknowledging and properly citing the work of others.
Whether you summarize, paraphrase, or use direct quotes, if it's not your original idea, the source must be acknowledged. The only possible exception to this rule is information that is considered to be a commonly known fact [e. Appreciate, however, that any "commonly known fact" is culturally constructed and shaped by social and aesthetical biases.
Ballenger, Bruce P. The Writing Center. Harvard College Writing Program. Harvard University; Newton, Philip. Academic Skills Centre. University of Canberra; Using Sources. Yale College Writing Center. Yale University. You must cite research in order to do research, but at the same time, you must delineate what are your original thoughts and ideas and what are the thoughts and ideas of others.
Procedures used to cite sources vary among different fields of study. Always speak with your professor about what writing style for citing sources should be used for the class because it is important to fully understand the citation style to be used in your paper, and to apply it consistently.
If your professor defers and tells you to "choose whatever you want, just be consistent," then choose the citation style you are most familiar with or that is appropriate to your major [e. Should I avoid referencing other people's work? If placed in the proper context, referencing other people's research is never an indication that your work is substandard or lacks originality.
In fact, the opposite is true. If you write your paper without adequate references to previous studies, you are signaling to the reader that you are not familiar with the literature about the topic, thereby, undermining the validity of your study and your credibility as a researcher.
Including references in academic writing not only defends you against allegations of plagiarism, but it is one of the most important ways to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of previous investigations about the research problem.
It is the intellectual packaging around which you present your study to the reader. What should I do if I find that my idea has already been examined by another researcher? Do not ignore another author's work because doing so will lead your readers to believe that you have either borrowed the idea or information without properly referencing it [this is plagiarism] or that you have failed to conduct a thorough review of the literature. You can acknowledge the other research by writing in the text of your paper something like this: [see also Smith, ], then citing the complete source in your list of references.Start on a deep, clean document. Magazine Title, pp. Looking other people's words and ideas indicates that you have Sol gel synthesis of ordered mesoporous illuminati a thorough review of the situation on your topic and, therefore, you are learning your research from an interdisciplinary and critically engaged separating. Burke, J. For one idea, use the author's last name and year began by a comma.
Ideas are considered intellectual property and there can be serious repercussions if you fail to cite where you got an idea from. Magazine: Last Name, First Name. One is the reliance on the honesty of the participant. Sources Without Page Numbers When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. To this end, we hope to demonstrate that biometric measurements can be used with questionnaires to verify and validate potential design changes a company or organization might want to implement. Middle initial.
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns. You still must cite the original work. Do not translate them into Arabic numerals. Volume, number, and page numbers Give the volume number in italics, followed by the issue number in parentheses if there is an issue number , and the page number s. The impact of website quality dimensions on customer satisfaction in the B2C e-commerce context. Harris et al.
Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. To demonstrate you have considered others' research. Title When citing the name of a journal, magazine or newspaper, write the name in italics, with all words capitalized except for articles, prepositions and conjunctions. Every quote or piece of outside information included in the paper should be referenced and have an entry. For more than five authors, use the first author's last name and "et al. The way in which you document your sources depends on the writing style manual your professor wants you to use for the class [e.
List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for themselves. Martin's Press, ; Mills, Elizabeth Shown. Some journals,e. Magazine Article Essinger, J.
Our APA format machine can help you create every reference for your paper. If there has been a lot of prior studies on the topic, describe the most comprehensive and recent works because they will presumably discuss and reference the older studies; but note, as in the above example, that there has been significant scholarship devoted to the topic so the reader knows that you are aware of this. You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below. Electronic style: A guide to citing electronic information. Have the citation make it easy to find the reference in the "References" section. Article title.
Doing so means you have to renumber all the references whenever you insert a new reference. Procedures used to cite sources vary among different fields of study. Alphabetize and double-space ALL entries. Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers The following apply to citing the name and identifying information for journals, magazines, newspapers, and periodicals in general. Using eye tracking metrics, galvanic skin response, and facial expression measures in tandem with a scale aimed at measuring visual design quality has a couple of identifiable benefits.
When referencing prior studies, use the research problem as your guide when considering what to cite. Citing sources during college will help get you in the habit of acknowledging and properly citing the work of others. Some journals,e. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad Note that some disciplines have their own citation method [e. Looking for a full visual of a page of references?
During this assessment we collected GSR, facial expressions limited by errors in initial study configuration , pupillary response, and fixation data using iMotions software coupled with a Tobii eye tracker, Shimmer GSR device, and Affdex facial expression analysis toolkit. Publication Date: Page Numbers.
In the professional world, failure to cite other people's intellectual property ruins careers and reputations and can result in legal action. Interview Computer, Christopher C. Journal Article Armstrong, P. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, e. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin.