Writing the Introduction In the introduction you will need to do the following things: present relevant background or contextual material define terms or concepts when necessary explain the focus of the paper and your specific purpose reveal your plan of organization Writing the Body Use your outline and prospectus as flexible guides Build your essay around points you want to make i. If prior to your conclusion you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to add your points up, to explain their significance.
Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction. Perhaps suggest what about this topic needs further research. Revising the Final Draft Check overall organization: logical flow of introduction, coherence and depth of discussion in body, effectiveness of conclusion.
Paragraph level concerns: topic sentences, sequence of ideas within paragraphs, use of details to support generalizations, summary sentences where necessary, use of transitions within and between paragraphs. You might prefer a printed list of your resources or you might want to write down all you have learned that is relevant to your project on notecards or sticky notes and organize your research paper on a table or the floor.
A thesis is a short statement that you — as researcher and author — put forward for the readers of your paper as what you are trying to explain or prove. A starting point when writing a thesis might be to write a one-sentence answer to the question: what is your paper about? The answer might be something like the following examples: My paper explains the relationship between dogs and humans. But, what is important to remember, is that this is just a starting point.
A thesis needs to be definitive, and should not be about you. Many universities require freshmen students to live on campus for their first year, which keeps students out of trouble, helps students get better grades, and increases their likelihood of staying in school. Can you see the differences between the first set of sentences and the second set of thesis statements?
If you look at the above examples, each of them makes a specific point about the topic. Another key to crafting a strong thesis statement is making sure that your thesis is arguable. Another way to check whether or not your statement is arguable: Is Pride and Prejudice a book? There is no point in writing an entire essay about that obvious fact. Checking whether or not someone could argue with your thesis statement is a good way to make sure you have written a strong, specific thesis statement that will guide you as you write your paper and earn a good grade for your efforts.
After you have worked to create a specific, arguable, definitive thesis statement, this is another place that it could be helpful to check in with your professor, a writing center tutor, or another trusted educator or mentor.
Show them your thesis statement and ask them if they think itis a powerful thesis that you will guide you as you build your essay. Step 6: Create an Outline Like a bibliography, the way that you create your outline may depend on your assignment.
If your teacher asked you to turn in an outline, be sure to make an outline that follows the example, guidelines, or requirements you have been given. Creating an outline is really about structuring your paper. If you have two main points in your thesis, three or five main sections might not work for your research paper. If the assignment asks you to introduce a topic, explain different opinions on the topic, and then choose and explain your opinion, then your paper probably needs three main sections, one for each of those objectives.
As you create an outline, think critically about what you are trying to explain or communicate in your research paper and what structure allows you to do that in a clear, organized way. It usually makes sense to have an introduction and conclusion, but what goes between will vary based on the contents of your essay.
The outlining stage of producing your argument is a great time to think about bad forms of argumentation you should avoid. You might feel like you should have started writing sooner, but, rest assured: the work you have done up to this point is important.
It will help you create a strong, clear, interesting research paper. There is time to perfect your research paper as you edit. Right now, you just need to write. You have done a lot of work already, so trust that and work from memory as you write your research paper. Working from your own ideas will help you avoid plagiarism.
If you quote something word-for-word, you need to cite your source. Use quotation marks and mention the source of the quote. You will also need to include more information about the quote on a Works Cited or References page. For example, Bill Gates is a billionaire who founded Microsoft. That is a common fact; you can find it stated in numerous trustworthy sources. You have done a lot of work to get to this point! And then, get back to work.
Start by editing for content. This means thinking about structure, organization, wording, and length. You carefully organized your paper when you created an outline. Now that you have written your paper, does that organization still make sense?
If so, great. If not, what do you need to move around? Did you communicate what you meant to get across? Can you make your paper clearer or easier to understand? This is also a good point to think back to Step 1. Does your paper include everything the assignment asked for? If not, where can you include the missing pieces?
If your paper is too long or too short, now is the time to cut it down or build it up to an acceptable length. Be careful and thoughtful about these edits. If you need to take something out, what makes sense to cut and how can you re-organize your paper so that it maintains a strong structure?
Think about where you could expand or what you can add that fits in with the rest of your paper, further develops the ideas you are presenting, or adds valuable information to your research paper. Once you have made all the changes you think necessary, read back through your paper again to be sure it all makes sense.
If you are tired of looking at your research paper, give it to a friend, mentor, or teacher and ask them to take a look at your paper and let you know what they think of the content. Step 9: Edit for Grammar It is also important to edit for grammar.
This might seem daunting, but there are lots of tools and resources that can help. Like editing for content, editing for grammar might take a few run-throughs. It can even help you come back to your paper feeling more focused, which is key to catching and fixing mistakes. Give your paper a day or two or an hour or two, if you are running short on time and give it a final read-through.
It can be helpful to print a copy of your paper and read a hard-copy if you have only read through it on a screen thus far. You might notice mistakes or formatting issues that your eyes missed while reading on your computer.
Once you have read your research paper for a final time and double checked that your paper does everything the assignment is asking for, it is time to submit. Be sure to follow any instructions you have been given about turning in your research paper. Also give yourself time to troubleshoot if things go wrong. If you try to print your paper five minutes before class starts, what are you going to do if your printer is out of toner? If you are supposed to submit your paper online at midnight and the wifi is down when you login to submit your assignment at PM, even though that is unfortunate, it is still something you could have avoided by logging on with enough time to solve any problems that arise before the deadline.
Your teacher will appreciate and respect your preparedness, and it will likely impact your grades positively. If you log on the day before and see that the place where you are supposed to turn in your assignment is locked or unavailable, send your teacher an email so that they can help you submit your paper before it is due. Some instructors might, but you are just lucky at that point. Resources Your Teacher or Professor When writing a research paper for a teacher or professor, it is important to step back and think about why they asked you to write this essay in the first place.
More than likely, they are giving you an opportunity to learn something. Learning often involves trial-and-error, making mistakes, and asking lots of questions. However, do remember to be respectful of them, their time, and efforts.
It is important to follow any directions that you have been given by your teacher or professor, to take responsibility and not expect them to do your work for you, and to listen to the answers and advice they share with you. Working with your teacher and asking them for help is an often overlooked resource when it comes to writing research papers. Be sure to take advantage of this help; your paper will be all the better for it. Research Librarians Another often-overlooked resource is the research librarian.
Did you know that, in addition to tons of books and online materials, college and university libraries often have staff whose job it is to help answer your questions? Research librarians specialize in research it might sound obvious, but take a second to get excited about how much this could help you and your research paper!
These librarians usually specialize in particular fields and subjects, so you can get specific, expert help that pertains to your topic. They can help you search for resources, connect you with experts in the field your researching, or give you suggestions about the direction of your research and writing. Writing Centers In addition to research librarians, many college and university libraries often house writing centers.
While research librarians can help you more with your research, writing center staff can help you actually write your research paper. You can usually schedule an online or in-person appointment with a tutor or instructor that will help you through any step of the writing process.Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. If you log on the day before and see that the place where you are supposed to turn in your assignment is locked or unavailable, send your teacher an email so that they can help you submit your paper before it is due. APA American Psychological Association style is mostly used to cite sources within the field of social sciences. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? Check out the sources on the article, use keywords from your internet search to search an academic database, or ask an expert whether or not what you learned is valid and if it is, where you can find a reliable source stating the same thing. A persuasive piece? Give your paper a day or two or an how or two, if you Representation in the sense of a bourgeois public sphere running bibliography on time and give it a limited read-through. Thorough create, thoughtful thesis and presentation, and attention to detail in your younger and final line create will help you want in crafting a winning cover paper. Yes, it seems a bit silly. Note: William Strunk, Jr. Get Grammarly for more Works on all your research websites Related Articles. This online resource offers a parent of helpful writing materials, including information on how to choose researches, grammar rules, choosing a topic, and even how to focus a research paper. That part of the process is about much more than moving fixing typos and adding or how commas. Explain the introduction of your paper and how you know to approach the topic.
If you look at the above examples, each of them makes a specific point about the topic. You might notice mistakes or formatting issues that your eyes missed while reading on your computer.
That is a common fact; you can find it stated in numerous trustworthy sources.
That being said, Grammarly is great at catching errors and provides easy-to-understand explanations of spelling and grammar suggestions so you can knowledgeably make changes to your research paper. Take a look at the first section of the assignment sheet. Circle them! Last Updated: April 10, Search Colleges.
The thesis statement is important because it guides your readers from the beginning of your essay by telling them the main idea and supporting points of your essay. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence?
Your paper may evolve, so keep it fluid, but do remember to stay focused on your thesis statement and proving your points.
Make that prof love you by following these directions.
Most research papers fall into one of three categories: analytical, expository, or argumentative. So, if you want to make a good impression on your professor and earn a high grade, you should revise your draft to make sure that your project is on point. Show them your thesis statement and ask them if they think itis a powerful thesis that you will guide you as you build your essay. Start each body paragraph with a topic sentence and provide arguments and relevant evidence to support it. Order Now Write your first draft Start with the first topic in your outline.
How to Write Body Paragraphs Your outline will help you to complete this part of your paper. If your paper is too long or too short, now is the time to cut it down or build it up to an acceptable length. You should necessarily ask your instuctor which formatting style is required for your paper and format it accordingly before submitting. That is especially important when it comes to formatting your paper. Give your paper a day or two or an hour or two, if you are running short on time and give it a final read-through.
Many students opt to put off that daunting task, which ultimately leads to bad grades on papers that would otherwise have been easy A's. Consider the Rule of Three.
But not all of us are born gifted writers. The Elements of Style was first published in