If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: Smith. Example paragraph with in-text citation A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech Derwing et al. Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech.
Derwing and others conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program References Derwing, Tracey M. Thomas, Holly K.
University of Colorado, Boulder, About In-Text Citation In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title.
Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks. Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at the end of your in-text citation. No Page Numbers When you quote from electronic sources that do not provide page numbers like Web pages , cite the author name only. Paraphrasing When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion.
The Family of Charles IV. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado, www. Accessed 22 May Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www. Accessed May If the work is cited on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.
Adams, Clifton R. An Article in a Web Magazine Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.
Bernstein, Mark. Accessed 4 May An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal For all online scholarly journals, provide the author s name s , the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication.
If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format i. Dolby, Nadine. Accessed 20 May Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article.
Provide the URL and the date of access. Wheelis, Mark. Accessed 8 Feb. Provide the date of access if you wish. Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Wiley Online Library, doi Accessed 26 May Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol.
For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited.
Citing authors with same last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation.
For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others.
Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6.
Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon.
Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse.
For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek.
Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd.Mla as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the source you are citing. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Editor, report, or compiler name if available. This paper may not be published, reproduced, Saints injury report week 10, rewritten, or redistributed without citation. Use quotation marks around the article title.
This allows the reader to spend more time focusing on the content of your project, rather than the sources. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. It is also wise to keep a record of when you first consult with each online source. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Accessed 29 Sep. In addition to awareness-raising, practicing listening to accented speech has been shown to improve listening comprehension.
Accessed 8 Feb. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page. Unknown Author Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title. References Derwing, Tracey M.
If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.
You can also use the Bookmark function in your web browser in order to build an easy-to-access reference for all of your project's sources though this will not help you if the information is changed or deleted. Use quotation marks around the article title.
For example: Purdue U, 28 Nov. While similar, there are slight differences. In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. It Takes Two; Brock Quite often, the two terms, in-text citation and parenthetical citation, are used interchangeably.