Chapter three provides a fully detailed account of the research methodology, the reasons that the various research strategies were selected and the rationale for the sample selection process. It also deals with the issues of why the particular survey instrument was selected as being appropriate for the current study. Chapter four is the section in which the results of the survey are briefly presented using descriptive analysis.
Lastly, chapter five points out the conclusions drawn, and the recommendations forwarded. Facebook, MySpace, Orkut, Cyworld, Bebo, Twitter and other social network sites are the best examples of SNs that allow individuals to present themselves to other users using a variety of formats; including text, video and chat services. SNS incorporate a list of other users with whom individuals share a connection. Hence, more than virtual Lessons from Facebook communities born online, SNS are usually online communities created and maintained to reflect offline relationships.
Facebook was created by Mark Zuckerberg to help residential college and university students to identify students in other residence halls. Becoming Social Over the last decade, and particularly in the last five or six years, SNS has transformed our thinking about our relationships, our connections with and affinity to others, and the influence and persuasive power of online communities on how we think, organize, and act politically. Since the inception of the Internet and integration of email technology into our personal and work lives, our ways of communicating began to change.
However, it was not until the creation of social media interfaces like Facebook, MySpace, Friendster, LinkedIn, YouTube, Twitter and other similar applications that have we seen such a massive harnessing of the potential of the now-pervasive online connectivity in our everyday lives.
Unlike the communication functions of other online technologies, SNS in particular has provided a virtual landscape mirroring familiar elements of community as we understood and experienced it prior to the existence of such technologies. Social media technology links people together in ways that resemble traditional feelings of connection, belonging, loosely defined memberships, exchange of feelings and ideas, and the reporting of experiences and actions.
Indeed, some suggest SMT has suddenly lowered the costs of collaborating, sharing, and producing, thus providing revolutionary new forms of interaction and problem-solving Shirky, We can now create, maintain, and access both well-defined and amorphously defined communities online, while also using the social media technology as a tool to fluidly transition between online and face-to-face contact via friendships, planned activities, and other more formal organizational affiliations.
One of the most powerful social media platforms is Facebook. Initially, Facebook was privately conceived within and navigated through the social networks of students at Harvard, and subsequently at other elite universities: Princeton, Yale, and Stanford.
Since its inception, this interface has expanded across multiple college communities and then quickly encompassed a wider range of connected networks of individuals and groups around the world. Today, the adoption of social media technology now stretches across the globe, integrating into the lives of individuals of diverse social, national, racial and ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Traditional-aged college students have embraced social media technology; it has become a major part of their everyday lives.
Particularly, as we consider the generation for whom such social media technology exchanges have existed their entire lives, there is a fluid interchange between digital and physical experiences. For this generation, SNS is a primary means of communication and information seeking, and possibly, a central component of their identity and community building. Extent of Social Media Technology Use 2. In a separate Pew report on Asian Americans and technology, Rainie reports Asian Americans as the leaders in overall Internet usage, mobile connectivity through cell phones, laptops, and wireless devices, but they remain on par with social media engagement as other minority groups.
Additional Pew research conducted by Jansen notes, expectedly, that individuals with greater income spend more time on connected devices, and in many cases, increased use is due to the disparity in ownership of internet-ready devices beyond the mobile phone. However, Flowtown reports that this trend does not hold true regarding social media usage. Lastly and not surprisingly, across the U. Older generations have been slower to embrace SNS, struggling somewhat to keep pace with younger cohorts.
However, they have recently begun making a sharper turn in support of the technology. Comparatively, younger generations remain by far the greatest beneficiaries and users of SNS. College-Age Users The generation of year old users has been referred to by many names — millennial, avant-garde, and most simply, generation Y, many of who are now traditional college-aged adults. These young media consumers are more connected than any previous generation, and they have an expectation to remain that way in all aspects of their lives.
An important dimension to understand when evaluating usage within this demographic is the wide array of user personalities engaging in social media conversations.
Given the huge proportion of users in this age range, variation abounds in this vast digital space. Among millennial college students, for instance, multiple collections of Internet-minority groups exist rather than a homogenous group of age-restricted users Jones et al.
For example, one subgroup might consist of infrequent users of these technologies, while another subgroup might make frequent use of one or two particular technologies and a larger subgroup might make extensive and frequent use of a variety of the latest technologies.
Furthermore, Palfrey and Gasser note that the general online behaviours that comprise these heterogeneous user types run the gamut from identity exploration to media piracy or illegal downloading, entertainment, and social activism — all of which are manifested through socially enabled media. Based on an additional study Junco, , presumably, usage is most robust among first-semester freshmen and sophomores among such students at four-year institutions.
College student use of Facebook has been shown mostly to reflect a one-to-many style, in which students create content to disseminate to others.
Interactions between students were most often primarily between existing friends rather than new connections and users were most often observing content rather than producing it. But later it becomes most popular and visited with 34 million unique visitors by January , and as the 13th most popular website worldwide comScore, , with 98 million unique visitors by December As of March , Facebook reported having 67 million active users those who have returned to the site in the last 30 days , with more than half of them returning daily and spending an average of 20 minutes per day on the site Facebook, Like most social network sites, Facebook provides a formatted web page into which each user can enter personal information, including gender, birthday, hometown, political and religious views, e-mail and physical addresses, relationship status, activities, interests, favourite music and movies, educational background and a main personal picture.
To date, Facebook serves roughly million people enabling them to share multitudes of information and connect with others Fletcher, Facebook Usage Facebook usage encompasses both the simple use of the platform and the extent of cognitive immersion into the site.
Its use implies the presence of individual users on the social website, time spent on this platform, frequent visits, and the nature of the activities performed.
People from different age ranges interact and exchange content; they share videos and pictures, discuss subjects, chat, publish advertisements for group events, or play available applications. Younger generations e.
We presume that an extensive presence on Facebook and the resulting increased levels of information flow management requirement engage students in these tasks while they engaged in constant interactions and socialization, which prohibit them from focusing appropriately on their academic tasks Chen, et al.
The four diverse students shared multitudes of information regarding their experiences with Facebook. Academic Performance Academic Performance refers to how students deal with their studies and how they complete different assignments given to them by their teachers. The popularity of the social networking sites enlarged briskly in the last span.
This is most likely due to the reason that every person used it extensively to get worldwide access. These social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook have become a furious craze for everyone these days. Students are paying more attention towards these social networking activities rather than utilizing this time for their studies and this surely affects their academic performance.
The destructive effects of these social networking sites overweigh the progressive ones. These sites have caused some latent harm to society. The students become preys of social networks more often than anyone else. LaRose et al. The misuse of these sites on a daily basis has many destructive effects on the physical and mental health of students making them sluggish and unenthusiastic to build interaction with the people in real life.
Kubey, Lavin, and Barrows found that students who spent five times more hours online reported schoolwork problems. Although this study did not mention Facebook specifically, the researchers did mention that the captive social opportunities of the Internet appeared to be the culprit of the schoolwork problems Kubey et.
Hedonic Usage of Facebook and Academic Performance Hedonic usage results from activities devoted for pleasure. Facebook usage provided interconnections of people from the same university or all over the world; people continue to connect through it when they want to get in touch with someone they lost contact with or meet new people worldwide. Few other media or channels allow that. However, observed Facebook usage is mostly embedded in the pleasure experienced by surfers who maintain profiles and exchange content.
Such usage also can offer better functionality for exchanging videos or pictures, because its integrated application reduces picture sizes and facilitates video sharing compared with messages sent by e-mail for example. But this kind of Facebook usage resulted students for wastage of time on starring on computers rather than studying hard and scoring good results in colleges Van der Heijden ; Rosen and Sherman ; Shin, ; Shin and Shin, ; Sun et al.
Theoretical Review 2. Websites, email tools, and the computer itself are all artefacts; the tasks refer to an assignment performed using these tools Firineran and Zhang, Thus Facebook is an artefact, and people using this network engage in tasks that prompt their flow on the platform. Novak et al also provide an extensive review of the definition of flow as experienced by people immersed in a task. Described as total concentration and deep involvement in the tasks, these activities result in intrinsic enjoyment, combined with keen curiosity and pleasure that encourages repetition of the activity, but also the loss of time and an inability to control usage or halt the activity.
The way people use online social networks especially in terms of their behavioural patterns and attitudes toward information sharing and privacy is a direct result of and reflection on their cultural backgrounds Kiesler, Intellectual capabilities to manage time and process information also should affect their capacity to benefit from online activities and restrict their efficiency on any tasks performed in parallel. Facebook users usually interrupt their work to visit Facebook profiles, because of the short-term capacity needed for the working memory process.
Unemployed people might go online to look for job opportunities and end up interacting on social platforms, ultimately spending much more on them than expected. The use of online social networks also varies across countries because cultures induce diverse impacts on their members.
Absorption in the social networking activity entails extended immersion in these websites, enjoyment while interacting, aid curiosity, but people are also temporally disassociated from their main tasks; whether online or offline, and lose control over the main activity in favour of chatting or checking new updates. Consequently, this research will assess the impact of Facebook hedonic usage on academic performance.
Impacts of Facebook Usage Given the high-volume usage of SNS, an obvious and popular concern among faculty, administrators, and parents is the widespread notion that students spend far too much time on nonacademic activities related to the Internet and social media. Countless articles in popular newspapers, periodicals, and blogs have raised these very same concerns Bart, ; Ingram, ; Ojalvo, ; Schulten, The most salient concern among scholars, educators, and the public however is related to the effects of social networking sites such as Facebook on the time dedicated to studying and offline activities.
These are discussed below. Sharing and collecting information The Social Networking in general and Facebook in particular offers significant advantages for its users, for example, sharing and collecting information, searching for jobs, communication, and entertainment.
Vast quantities of information of different types are stored on the Internet. Usually, the information on the Internet is free of cost and is available 24 hours a day. In addition, the Facebook provides its users with the latest news of the world and most of the newspapers are available on the Internet, which are periodically or immediately updated with the latest news Rice, Thus, Facebook users can almost instantaneously learn about news events, read news articles or opinions about world events, and share this information and their own thoughts with others like themselves.
Communication and entertainment People around the world can now quickly communicate with each other through the Facebook using a range of applications: chatting, Wall post, and helps to download some books. The Facebook also provides different types of entertainment. For instance, users can play games with other people in any part of the world, watch movies and listen to music.
One guy who openly talked nonstop about his 2-year-old boy got upset one day before class when I asked how the child was. He gave me a serious look and said, "Don't ever mention my son again. I've learned that while Twitter-addicted young adults usually have no problem sharing too much information with strangers, it has to be at their own initiative.
They think nothing of sending out personal messages that would make many of us blush but then turn around to perceive seemingly innocuous questions or comments from faculty members as "judgmental" or "disrespectful.
I may want to drop my jaw and scream "Why are you telling this to strangers? He just handed me the drive to use for grading his project, but when I later inserted it into my laptop there were no titles on the numbered files. So I clicked on the first file. The dark, grainy footage showed the head of a girl performing fellatio on my student in the front seat of a car. That obviously wasn't the class project. I opened a second file, and they were both naked.
I eventually located the correct video to grade but was amazed that he gave me a drive with such intimate material. When I handed the flash drive back to him at the start of the next class period, I didn't make a comment and kept my facial expression neutral. I had learned that no matter what students share in this Facebook era, sometimes it's wisest not to comment on their status. The Negative Effects of Facebook As many people know Facebook is one of the largest social networks in the world today.
Facebook is helping people connect with their friends, and relatives from all over the world. It makes human begin life much easier. However, since Facebook is getting well-known, bad things start to take place.
There are two effects that I want to talk about Facebook Has a Negative Impact on the Concentration of Students, about percent of high school students are falling behind in class because they spend many hours 38 on Facebook.
Therefore, it leads to lack of time to studying or concentration on school work. Therefore, the percentage of student repeating the class is higher every year. Students watch adult movie on Facebook- As Facebook becomes popular , there are more users uploading a lot of music videos that was over The problem is that on Facebook there are many middle school students around years old always playing around, so the chance that they would watch adult videos is very high.
Furthermore, there are many users posting photos of their body and putting its up there so it make affect the little kids who always playing around on the site In my opinion, Facebook has become a place where you can watch any movies and do not have to consider age. So I strongly believe that parents should do something to keep their kids from watching or learning what they are not supposed to.
Facebook will not do anything about it because if they do not allow the customer to posting videos or photos they will lose profit. It is very hard to keep track since there are million of users on Facebook. So it is in the parents hands now. Facebooks Side Effects Around the world, billions of brightly lit computer screens reflect a blue tint on their masters as the iconic f takes over the screen.
With games, friends, and easy sharing from nearly every website about nearly everything, Facebook is an internet giant that has a fierce grip on quite possibly the whole World Wide Web, or at least its users. The social media giant adds a positive spin on teens lives but also adds more stress, A lot of it is negative like wasting time when you could be doing homework, said senior Giovanni Cerutti.
Where they go, ironically enough is back onto Facebook, causing a vicious cycle. Positively, though, students can find Facebook to be a useful tool. I talk to friends mostly I go on very rarely but when I do, I talk to friends because I dont have a phone, said sophomore Chris McCarter. The site can be especially handy when a student misses an assignment and needs to make it up quickly. With their web of peers on hand the student can usually find a fellow classmate to help.
Others use it to track various other interests or hobbies such as photography, skateboarding, or music. Another good thing is the ability to be able to follow your favorite bands and knowing when theyre touring, Cerutti said.
Facebook sometimes isnt the true issue but its users and whats going on when teachers are away. Drama that is left at a standstill at school multiplies online with the power of anonymity, without the responsibility of facing the person youre insulting, bullying becomes increasingly severe.
I have been cyber bullied as well as seen it. They were attacking me for dancing with someones ex, eventually I just blocked them said Eastman. Conflicts at school can continue and exponentially grow to the point where some attacks can push victims harm themselves.
From this the harm will grow to attempting and sometimes succeeding in ending their own lives. Facebook has the pros and cons of any website, if its positive or not is purely up to the users and how they use it either as a tool, a weapon, or a time waster. Students should always caution themselves with what they allow to be published on the site and remember that a screen wont always hide your identity.
What Facebook Does to Kids' Brains People love to sensationalize the deleterious effects of new-fangled tech on the impressionable brains of children. Psychologist Larry D. Rosen's presentation to the American Psychological Association is a little more nuanced than "Facebook Rots Kids' Brains," but it still has plenty to be concerned about. But science has proven at least one thing: Facebook does something to some people's brains, probably.
The good Kids who spend more time on Facebook learn to show "virtual empathy" to their friends online, Rosen found. When making friends on the social network, kids are more likely to overlook race and make friends based on interest, a UCLA study found. Facebook can improve the self-esteem of college students, according to a Cornell study. Silly status updates can help breed desirable traits like entrepreneurship, a report from the National IT Center claimed.
Facebook raises kids' self-esteem. The bad Facebook breeds narcissism. While it also lowers kids' self-esteem. Young adults who have a strong Facebook presence show more signs of other psychological disorders and are more susceptible to future health problem, found Rosen.
Facebook doesn't prepare kids for real-life talking. The social network makes kids depressed, found an American Academy of Pediatrics study. It's addictive. It's distracting. In other words, it's kind of like middle school. Facebook negative impact is increasingly felt, even though the Facebookers many are not aware of the influence of negati facebook.
Perhaps because the name is already addicted to facebook. But it is precisely this that is dangerous, which is not realized. Okay, for you the youth and students as well as children, you must know what the negative impact of this facebook. Because of facebook users is dominated by the year olds as much as No matter with the surrounding People who are addicted to facebook too preoccupied with his own world the world which he created that does not care about other people and the environment around it.
Someone who has been addicted to facebook often experience this. No matter with their surroundings, their world turned into a world of facebook. Some say autism. Lack of socialization with the environment This impact of too frequent and too old to play facebook.
It's quite alarming for the development of the social life of the child. They are supposed to learn socialization with the environment even more to spend more time in cyberspace with friends who average facebooknya discuss something that is not important. As a result the child's verbal abilities declined. Of course autism is here not in the literal sense.
Wasting money 43 Internet access to open facebook obviously affect the financial condition especially if access from the cafe. And the cost of the Internet in Indonesia is likely to still expensive when compared to other countries and even many free ones.
This could be categorized as waste, because it is not productive. Another matter if they use it for business purposes. Distemper Too much sitting in front of the monitor without doing any activity, sport has never really pose a risk to health.
Disease will be easy to come. Late irregular eating and sleeping. Obesity overweight , stomach diseases gastrointestinal , and eye disease are health problems most likely to occur. Reduced learning time It is obvious, too old to play facebook will reduce the allotted time to study the child as a learner. There are even some who are still busy playing facebook while at school. Lack of attention to family The family home is number one.
The slogan is no longer valid for the Facebookers. Make their friends on facebook is number one. Not infrequently their attention to the family to be reduced. The spread of personal data Some Facebookers provide data about the data itself with great detail.
Usually this is for people who know the Internet was limited to only facebook. They do not know the risk is to spread personal data on the internet. Remember the data is easy once the data on the internet is leaking, let alone facebook easily hacked!
Easily find something pornography It was easy for the Facebookers find something that smells of porn. Because the two things are the most widely searched on the internet and also the easiest to find.
Just use the Internet to search for content "slimy". Prone to the dispute The lack of control of managers facebook against its members and immaturity facebook users themselves create friction between Facebookers often occur. The most phenomenal example is the case "Evan Brimob" some time ago. Evan Brimob is a new member of the police who know facebook.
Please search on google about Evan Brimob wrote with a statement that the controversy: "The police do not need society". Beware of scams! Like other media media, facebook also vulnerable to fraud.
Especially for children who do not understand the ins and outs of the internet. For the fraudster themselves, the virtual world conditions that completely anonymous obviously very profitable. Facebook Effects on Students I've been a Facebook member for about five years now.
I was fourteen when I first created my profile, and I must admit, like many of my peers and friends, I've become an avid user. I've always had an interest in the newest social medias. As a sophomore now in college, I find myself using Facebook while doing homework, in class, or just 45 when I'm bored. Facebook has several uses, to me. I use it to create groups for projects, events, etc. I for one am not against Facebook. Do I think it can become a distraction for academic excellence like most people say?
In the article, they talk about the extended amount of time that students are spending on Facebook. Although many students agree that Facebook is both time consuming and distracting, they still continue to use it on a daily basis. The average student spends minutes, however some students spend up to eight hours a day. The main concern here is that with these long hours, students may possibly be decreasing their academic performance and jeopardizing their grades.
During the long hours that these students spend on Facebook, they are not only distracting themselves, but they are focusing their productivity on Facebook posts and videos, rather than preparing for homework, tests, etc. This leads to poor results and a decrease in overall global achievement.
The article also factors in self-regulation and cognitive absorption. They hypothesized that students who practice self-regulation, set goals for themselves, therefore they practice less usage of online activity. Cognitive absorption refers to how captivated the students are in the tasks they are performing online.
The more they are immersed in these tasks, the less concentration they use on other tasks. They hypothesized that a high level of cognitive immersion on Facebook 46 decreases the students academic achievements, and the higher level of cognitive absorption in Facebook increases the student's time on the website. Although the usage on Facebook depends on the personality and overall goals of the student, I feel as if these facts in general are accurate.
Every student knows that Facebook is distracting, a social media used when procrastinating, and takes up a lot of time. However, if students, myself included, know this then why do they continue to use it? I am guilty of saying these things as well, yet I have my Facebook open in the tab next to this one.
I think the problem here is not Facebook, it's the motivation that some students lack. This generation is so attached to social networks, cell phones, and technology in general that I think they are afraid that in the thirty minutes it takes to do an assignment that they will miss out on something in their social life.
As technology continues to develop, it is my job, as a future educator, to teach students to set personal goals for themselves, so they can be the students that will spend less time on social media and more time being productive. Instead of students concentrating on their homework or studying for a big test the next day, they are spending hours looking through pictures, answering their page comments, and chatting with friends on the sites instant messenger.
Facebook has consumed good grades and face-to-face communication is in jeopardy. Even students who are active users of Facebook indicate some concerns about the long hours they spend surfing the site.
However, other students consider their time spend on Facebook valuable, because it enables them to exchange news with friends and family, learn about others activities, and have fun with various activities. They also regard their Facebook breaks as a means to renew their energy so that they can perform better on their subsequent tasks.
Students who use Facebook and hit the books simultaneously found their multitasking led to lower grades than those of their more focused peers.
Facebook-using students also made less money during school from part-time work, putting in around five hours per week as opposed to 16 hours per week for a typical, unplugged counterpart. Almost half of students believe they are sadder than their friends on Facebook, and some students have shown signs of severe depression in their status updates at one time or another. We get to know the latest news and issues, we can participate in an online discussions and many more.
Facebook is also an efficient social capitalization tool. It let every single individuals to present themselves, and begin or keep connections with others.When I handed the flash drive back to him at the start of the next class period, I didn't make a comment and kept my facial expression neutral. They hypothesized that a high level of cognitive immersion on Facebook 46 decreases the students academic achievements, and the higher level of cognitive absorption in Facebook increases the student's time on the website. However, they have recently begun making a sharper turn in support of the technology. The most baffling aspect for a faculty member to adjust to is that the same young people who now tell you everything have conversely become much more sensitive about what you say to them. Hence, the output of this research can contribute to these endeavours by creating awareness at the grass root level. Published in Computers in Human Behavior, the study analyzed 1, college students grades and Facebook usage.
I had learned that no matter what students share in this Facebook era, sometimes it's wisest not to comment on their status. Its use implies the presence of individual users on the social website, time spent on this platform, frequent visits, and the nature of the activities performed. Obesity overweight , stomach diseases gastrointestinal , and eye disease are health problems most likely to occur. Furthermore, additional studies on Facebook impact on both engagement and academic performance show positive effects.
But in my office, she told me her grades were suffering because she was having an affair with a local married TV reporter. Lack of socialization with the environment This impact of too frequent and too old to play facebook.
Switch off the notification emails in your account settings. Facebook negative impact is increasingly felt, even though the Facebookers many are not aware of the influence of negati facebook.
Older generations have been slower to embrace SNS, struggling somewhat to keep pace with younger cohorts.
A 14 week experimental study of university students found increased grades and increased levels of traditional measures of engagement among students who used the medium compared to their counterparts who did not Junco et al. Described as total concentration and deep involvement in the tasks, these activities result in intrinsic enjoyment, combined with keen curiosity and pleasure that encourages repetition of the activity, but also the loss of time and an inability to control usage or halt the activity. I think the problem here is not Facebook, it's the motivation that some students lack. At present, the University runs 60 undergraduate and 17 graduate programs in three different campuses at Nekemte, Gimbi and Shambu towns.
Another dramatic changed seen in students behavior is that they will not spent the required time on studies as they are asked to, brag about theposition and level that they are on the games online, how many friends are their as their partners, scores, records etc.
Facebook has consumed good grades and face-to-face communication is in jeopardy. Others use it to track various other interests or hobbies such as photography, skateboarding, or music. They would feel belongingness in the community compared to those who do not have accounts. But it is precisely this that is dangerous, which is not realized. But later, this site allows users to build social networks with hundreds or even thousands of people around the world of which university students are one of the primary demographics using Facebook, with features such as photos, wall posts, and status updates becoming seemingly irresistible to those who want to connect with their friends Gold, Facebook has the pros and cons of any website, if its positive or not is purely up to the users and how they use it either as a tool, a weapon, or a time waster.
Lack of attention to family The family home is number one. The misuse of these sites on a daily basis has many destructive effects on the physical and mental health of students making them sluggish and unenthusiastic to build interaction with the people in real life.
As a sophomore now in college, I find myself using Facebook while doing homework, in class, or just 45 when I'm bored.
You can always keep yourselves updated by checking the notifications when you log in into Facebook. One guy who openly talked nonstop about his 2-year-old boy got upset one day before class when I asked how the child was. Past studies have shown that students who are active on Facebook are more likely to participate in extra-curricular activities. Students should always caution themselves with what they allow to be published on the site and remember that a screen wont always hide your identity. It is stated that probability of involving in the behavior for using social networking sites increases when individual has strong intention of acting upon certain behaviors.
March 4, What is interesting is the decline in growth in the demographic. None of this is earth-shattering. Greg said he didn't have his assignment done because he had to go to court after being arrested for punching a guy in a bar fight.
Facebook associates can also join groups based on common interests, see what things they have in common, and learn each others' hobbies, interests, favorite music, and romantic relationship status through their pages. Facebook was created by Mark Zuckerberg to help residential college and university students to identify students in other residence halls. Thus, the debate roils on. Described as total concentration and deep involvement in the tasks, these activities result in intrinsic enjoyment, combined with keen curiosity and pleasure that encourages repetition of the activity, but also the loss of time and an inability to control usage or halt the activity. Social media include web and mobile technology.