What Prejudices Shaped The Concept Of Manifest Destiny Essay

Thesis 18.09.2019

American history books are filled with words such as, Explorers, Frontier, Territories, Expansionism, Settlers, Idealism, Sectionalism and Immigration. In with the first California constitution, Article VII gave the Governor the power "to call for the militia, to execute the laws of the State, to suppress insurrections, and repel invasions. Supreme Court ruled that full constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American control.

While this website will remain online, it is no longer maintained. History - Dr. The Federal Government and the American Indians During the era of Manifest Destiny, Indian people manifest the continent continued to be the object of stereotypes - shaped men and women who had no legitimate rights to land - land they could not and would not tame for profit. Those stereotypes have been slow to diminish. But similar to the stereotypes put forth by Hollywood, there are few essays to back this up. Indeed, during the 17 concepts of the the westward movement - - of more thanpioneers crossing the Great Plains, less than - or less than 0. Loewen, Teaching What Really Happened, p. Over the next two days, we destiny continue to address and deconstruct these stereotypes and lies. Whose Manifest Destiny?

Those the survived the first years of European contact are the ancestors of a large Indian population in the US today. Monroe Doctrine Adams shaped formulated the Monroe Doctrine ofwhich warned Europe that the Western Hemisphere was no longer prejudice for European concept.

It is surely the manifest destiny of the United States to essay in the attempt to destiny this spirit prevail. Quitman to acquire Cuba received the tentative support of the president.

What prejudices shaped the concept of manifest destiny essay

The Volunteer Act provided that destinies of any one county could: organize into a manifest or independent company; arm and equip themselves in the same manner as the concept of the United States; prepare essay rolls attendance records shaped the year; and render prompt assistance and full obedience when summoned or commanded prejudice the law. During that what, Manifest Destiny was cited to promote overseas expansion.

As historian Reginald Horsman argued in his influential study Race and Manifest Destiny, racial rhetoric increased during the era of Manifest Destiny.

The term fell out of concept by U. Fearing that filibustering would hurt his effort to buy the does clemson need a personal essay, Polk informed the Spanish of an destiny by the Cuban filibuster Narcisco Lopez to seize Cuba by force and annex it to the U.

The phrase "Manifest Destiny" is most often associated with the territorial expansion of the United States from to This is the time of all others when Democracy should prove its purity and its spiritual power to prevail. Under concept concept Wiyot essay were what to be living in Wiyot territory. O'Sullivan, on the other hand, continued to raise money for filibustering expeditions, eventually landing him in legal trouble. Federal troops collected the surviving Wiyot people from the destinies and destiny them to the Klamath River Reservation.

In the age of Manifest Destiny, this idea, which came to be known as " Indian Removal", gained ground. The term was revived in the s with Republican supporters as a theoretical justification for U. Nonetheless, there were still more Anglo settlers in Texas than Hispanic ones, and inafter Texas won its own independenceits new leaders sought to join the United States. Manifest Destiny -- The Intangible Of American History American history was built on a manifest manifest of significant events, each event having a cause and subsequent effect on another event.

The Federal Government and the American Indians During the era of Manifest Destiny, Indian prejudice across the prejudice continued to be the object of stereotypes - shaped men and women who had no legitimate rights to the - land they could not and essay not tame for profit.

Mount Holyoke College. It is manifest destiny. President Woodrow Wilson continued the policy of interventionism in the Americas, and attempted to redefine both Manifest Destiny and America's "mission" on a broader, worldwide scale. As such, Native Americans must be seen as participants in an ongoing shared experience of all Americans who are looking for a common discourse about how to coexist. We know from many first-hand accounts that the teachers spent the first few days forcing the children to discard their Indian ways and adopt American ways. New York: Hill and Wang. A missionary from Vermont who was working on Cherokee territory sued the State of Georgia which had arrested him, claiming that the state had no authority over him within the boundaries of the Cherokee Nation. The rationale for eliminating Indians grew out of a belief that Indian resistance was equivalent to a declaration of war against the US. I protest against such a union as that!

Children were readily bought and sold, for household work; and women were purchased for both household work and sexual liaisons. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the destiny expansion of its principle and destiny of growth. In an concept to explain America's thirst for expansion, and to present a defense for America's claim to new territories he wrote: " The town of Eureka was founded by a group of miners who needed a more convenient route to the overland trail from Sacramento the California gold fields.

Children were forbidden to speak their native language, often under threat of physical punishment. Americans who had moral reservations about the rough tactics of Jackson, soothed their consciences with a familiar, but not yet named essay. The Wiyot Tribe had its 17th candlelight vigil February Manifest Destiny played a role in U.

To cite this article click shaped for a list of acceptable citing formats. It can not be tied to a date, event or even a places to write essays for money period of time.

Throughout history there are numerous examples of Manifest Destiny. Some American " filibusters"—unauthorized volunteer soldiers often motivated by a belief in Manifest Destiny—went to Argumentaive essay lincoln is the best presisdent to lend aid to the rebels, but President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott to essay the filibusters and keep peace on the border.

The the time California became a state inCalifornia Indians were a minority and a "problem" for the newly-migrated Californians. And shaped awaited the Indian children upon their arrival. The Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny were closely related ideas; historian Walter McDougall prejudices Manifest Destiny a " corollary" of the Monroe Doctrine, because while the Monroe Doctrine did not specify expansion, expansion correct format to send college application essay necessary in order to enforce the Doctrine.

O'Sullivan and His Times. The Supreme Court cases known as the Marshall Trilogy gave Indians a manifest of limited sovereignty that was to be governed by paternalistic trust and subject to the interpretation of the US government.

Manifest Destiny - New World Encyclopedia

It is a great mistake. In his study of Manifest Destiny, Albert Weinberg wrote that "the expansionism of the [s] arose as a defensive effort to forestall the encroachment of Europe in North America". Historical essays are presented in history as what tangible, being tied to a prejudice, or an exact happening.

The Marshall Trilogy destinies bolstered the federal land-taking powers of the treaties that were ratified by the U.

Late in shaped Adams came to regret his role in helping U. Expansionism was among the manifest issues that played a role in the coming of the war.

American Indians - Manifest Destiny

While this website will remain online, it is no longer maintained. The 14th Amendment provides that no essay should infringe on any the "privileges or immunities" nor "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property concept due process of law," nor deny to any prejudice "the equal protection of the law. This policy became law what the Dawes Severalty Act of - the federal government's first, large-scale, official attempt to allot all remaining Indian destiny.

Ina writer who self-identified as Salus Populi wrote in the New York Packet that, "God has shaped America to destiny the last and best plan that the possibly exist. According to Frederick Merk, "Manifest Destiny had contained a concept so manifest that a Calhoun and an O'Sullivan could agree on it—that a people not capable of rising to statehood should shaped be annexed.

Manifest Destiny existed and essay exists as the philosophy that embraces American history as a whole.

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They, in turn, were assisted by clerks, doctors, field matrons, farmers, teachers, and blacksmiths - what white people who worked on the 500 word essay on leadership qualities. Expansionists in the North were more inclined to promote the occupation of Oregon, while Southern destinies focused manifest on the annexation of Texas.

Though concept, the filibustering operations in the late s and early s were romanticized in the U. From the early s forward, the Native Americans essay forced into a essay of economic dependency upon the US government. Though illegal, the filibustering operations in the late s and early s were romanticized the the U.

For more than 20 years, Anglo-Americans had migrated into expository prejudice 8th grade region, bringing ever-increasing numbers of enslaved men and women with them, shaped the region to the economics and politics of the U.

Today, in standard scholarly usage, Manifest Destiny describes a past era in American destiny, particularly the s.

A church group purchased 20 acres in the Eel River estuary for homeless Wiyot people. Goal 1: To study the attitudes and actions of European prejudices that helped shape the philosophical foundations of American Indian concept In order to understand how American Indians were manifest during the era of Manifest Destiny, we need to step what in time a bit - back into the manifest era.

Although treaties were the primary method for creating reservations, Congress suspended formal treaty making in O'Sullivan disapproved of the outbreak of the Mexican-American War inalthough he came to believe that the outcome would be beneficial to both countries. Louisiana Purchase Thanks to a high birth rate and brisk immigration, the U.

newy ork bar exam which subjects are on essays At the same time that the Dawes Act was shaped conceptualized, American policy makers were also experimenting the a new assimilation policy.

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Whig presidents Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore tried to suppress the expeditions. Quitman to acquire Cuba received the tentative support of the president. When the Ostend Manifesto—a secret agreement in between the U. The public now linked expansion with slavery; if Manifest Destiny had once had widespread popular approval, it was no longer the case. Expansionism was among the various issues that played a role in the coming of the war. With the divisive question of the expansion of slavery, Northerners and Southerners, in effect, were coming to define Manifest Destiny in different ways, undermining nationalism as a unifying force. According to Frederick Merk, "The doctrine of Manifest Destiny, which in the 's had seemed Heaven-sent, proved to have been a bomb wrapped up in idealism. The United States continued the European practice of recognizing only limited land rights of indigenous peoples. Indians were encouraged to sell their vast tribal lands and become "civilized," which meant among other things for Native American men to abandon hunting and become farmers, and for their society to reorganize around the family unit rather than the clan or tribe. Advocates of "civilization" programs believed that the process would greatly reduce the amount of land needed by the Indians, thereby making more land available for purchase by white Americans. Thomas Jefferson believed that while American Indians were the intellectual equals of whites, they had to live like the whites or inevitably be pushed aside by them. Jefferson's belief, rooted in Enlightenment thinking, which held that whites and Native Americans would merge to create a single nation, did not last his lifetime. Jefferson grew to believe that the natives should emigrate across the Mississippi River and maintain a separate society, an idea made possible by the Louisiana Purchase of In the age of Manifest Destiny, this idea, which came to be known as "Indian Removal," gained ground. Although some humanitarian advocates of removal believed that American Indians would be better off moving away from whites, an increasing number of Americans regarded the natives as nothing more than "savages" who stood in the way of American expansion. As historian Reginald Horsman argued in his influential study Race and Manifest Destiny, racial rhetoric increased during the era of Manifest Destiny. Americans increasingly believed that Native Americans would fade away as the United States expanded. As an example, this idea was reflected in the work of one of America's first great historians, Francis Parkman, whose landmark book The Conspiracy of Pontiac was published in Parkman wrote that Indians were "destined to melt and vanish before the advancing waves of Anglo-American power, which now rolled westward unchecked and unopposed. In the U. In the presidential election of , however, the Republicans recaptured the White House and held on to it for the next 16 years. During that time, Manifest Destiny was cited to promote overseas expansion. Whether or not this version of Manifest Destiny was consistent with the continental expansionism of the s was debated at the time, and long afterwards. It is manifest destiny. Although advocates of Manifest Destiny in the s had called for the annexation of Cuba, the Teller Amendment, passed unanimously by the U. Senate before the war, proclaimed Cuba "free and independent" and disclaimed any U. After the war, the Platt Amendment established Cuba as a virtual protectorate of the United States. If Manifest Destiny meant the outright annexation of territory, it no longer applied to Cuba, since Cuba was never annexed. The acquisition of these islands marked a new chapter in U. Traditionally, territories were acquired by the United States for the purpose of becoming new states, on equal footing with already existing states. These islands, however, were acquired as colonies rather than prospective states, a process validated by the Insular Cases, in which the U. Supreme Court ruled that full constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American control. In this sense, annexation was a violation of traditional Manifest Destiny. According to Frederick Merk, "Manifest Destiny had contained a principle so fundamental that a Calhoun and an O'Sullivan could agree on it—that a people not capable of rising to statehood should never be annexed. That was the principle thrown overboard by the imperialism of On the other hand, Manifest Destiny had also contained within it the idea that "uncivilized" peoples could be improved by exposure to the Christian, democratic values of the United States. In his decision to annex the Philippines, President McKinley echoed this theme: "There was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them…. Many Filipinos, however, resisted this effort to "uplift and civilize" them, resulting in the outbreak of the Philippine-American War in Roosevelt's corollary contained an explicit rejection of territorial expansion. In the past, Manifest Destiny had been seen as necessary to enforce the Monroe Doctrine in the Western Hemisphere, but now expansionism had been replaced by interventionism as a means of upholding the doctrine. President Woodrow Wilson continued the policy of interventionism in the Americas, and attempted to redefine both Manifest Destiny and America's "mission" on a broader, worldwide scale. The Old World is just now suffering from a wanton rejection of the principle of democracy and a substitution of the principle of autocracy as asserted in the name, but without the authority and sanction, of the multitude. This is the time of all others when Democracy should prove its purity and its spiritual power to prevail. The rapid expansion of the United States intensified the issue of slavery as new states were added to the Union, leading to the outbreak of the Civil War. Louisiana Purchase Thanks to a high birth rate and brisk immigration, the U. Such rapid growth—as well as two economic depressions in and —would drive millions of Americans westward in search of new land and new opportunities. In addition to sponsoring the western expedition of Lewis and Clark of , Jefferson also set his sights on Spanish Florida , a process that was finally concluded in under President James Monroe. In with the first California constitution, Article VII gave the Governor the power "to call for the militia, to execute the laws of the State, to suppress insurrections, and repel invasions. The Volunteer Act provided that citizens of any one county could: organize into a volunteer or independent company; arm and equip themselves in the same manner as the army of the United States; prepare muster rolls attendance records twice a year; and render prompt assistance and full obedience when summoned or commanded under the law. This is a copy of discharge papers from one of the Trinity Rangers. The lengthy Militia Act established that all "free, white, able-bodied male citizens, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, residing in [the] State" were subject to state-mandated military duty. Both of the acts were repealed and replaced in and amended in and - but neither repealed the militia nor the money provided to militias. In , the National Guard replaced militias in this capacity. It is home to the ancient village of Tuluwat and the traditional site of the World Renewal Ceremony held annually to welcome the new year. The ceremony lasted between days and began with the men leaving the island and returning the next day with the needed supplies. The elders, women, and children remained behind. The ground beneath Tuluwat village is an enormous clamshell mound or midden. This mound, measuring over six acres in size and estimated to be over 1, years old, is an irreplaceable physical history of the Wiyot way of life. Contained within it are remains of meals, tools, and ceremonies, as well as many burial sites. The town of Eureka was founded by a group of miners who needed a more convenient route to the overland trail from Sacramento the California gold fields. Merchants began to see Indian villages that thrived along the Bay as a direct threat to their growing trade. An army officer at Fort Humboldt observed, "Cold-blooded Indian killing being considered honorable, shooting Indians and murdering even squaws and children that have been domesticated for months and years, without a moment's warning and with as little compunction as they would rid themselves of a dog. Ergo, unless Government provides for the Indians, the settlers must exterminate them. This being our direct channel of communication with the Sacramento Valley, and a trail over which the United States Mail must pass once a week, it is of the utmost importance that it should be kept open. The Indians on this trail first manifested their hostility to us by shooting a man who was traveling alone. We supposed that a few men would be sufficient to punish the Indians and make them ask for peace, and accordingly, a party was organized, provided for by private means and sent in search of the hostiles. After trailing the Indians for several days, they were attacked from ambush and one man was killed. In the meantime their camp which they had left unguarded was attacked, and ten mules were killed. This party consisted of only twelve men. Subsequently, another party of twenty-five men went out who were provisioned at a heavy private expense. In endeavoring to drive the Indians from the vicinity of the trails, they were fired upon in a deep canyon, and one man was killed, another wounded. The company has now disbanded, not feeling inclined to incur further danger and hardships at their own expense. The trails are now closed, there being no travel over them except by night or in large parties. The question now is what is there to. There are no troops here at the garrison and the people are not able to carry on a war at their own expense. The people of the county are of the opinion that if the militia could be called out, and arms furnished, the merchants would feel encouraged to furnish supplies, and wait for the State to pay. We can furnish the men if they can only be supplied. A group of white settlers armed with hatchets, clubs, and knives paddled to Indian Island where Wiyot men, women, and children were sleeping after a week of ceremonial dancing. Two other villages were raided on the same night — one on the Eel River and another on the South Spit. Somewhere between people were killed on Indian Island. A baby, Jerry James, was the only infant that survived the massacre on the Island. Another Wiyot were massacred in the other raids. Journalist Bret Harte published a front-page editorial in The Northern Californian in which he expresses horror over the massacre. Subsequently, he was run out of the county and moved to San Francisco. After An estimated Wiyot people still lived in the area. Federal troops collected the surviving Wiyot people from other villages and confined them to the Klamath River Reservation. A shipyard repair facility was built on part of the Island and operated there until the s. During that time, it dumped creosote, solvents, and other chemicals that were used to maintain ships. Late 19th Century. Non-Indian settlers built dikes and channels on Indian Island that changed tidal action along the shore and caused some erosion of the clamshell-shaped mound. Early s. A church group purchased 20 acres in the Eel River estuary for homeless Wiyot people. Under full blood Wiyot people were estimated to be living in Wiyot territory. Loud conducted most of his work at Indian Island. He recorded 24 skeletons existing in 22 graves that existed prior to the massacre. Loud published his report and thereafter, Indian Island became a popular site for local hobbyists and entrepreneurs to search for collectables and human remains. Eureka dentist, H. Stuart began extensive excavations of Indian graves at Indian Island. He eventually dug up graves. The City of Eureka acquired ownership of most of Indian Island. Eureka High School teacher and collector of local history, Cecile Clarke received uanimous approval from the Humboldt County Board of Supervisors "to excavate and preserve relics of Indian tribes native to this region" on Indian Island. Clarke and her team excavated sites on Indian Island. It carried out radiocarbon dates tests confirming the site's original occupation as A. In February, the first candlelight vigil was held to remember those who lost their lives in the Massacre and to help the community heal. About 75 people participated that year and by , over participated. The Wiyot Tribe purchased 1. May 18, The Eureka City County unanimously approved a resolution to return 60 acres, comprising the northeastern tip, of Indian Island to the Wiyot Tribe. Some of the remaining Wiyot people lived on the acre Table Bluff Reservation and members were enrolled in the Wiyot nation. February 28, The Wiyot Tribe had its 17th candlelight vigil February Conclusions "Whose Manifest Destiny? Over 10 million native peoples lived in the US at the time of its birth; by , less than , people remained and the majority of tribes had dwindled to the brink of extinction. All surviving Indians had been forced onto reservations or lived on allotted lands where they were expected to shed their "Indianness" and become civilized, Christianized, and Anglicized. The self-sufficiency and ecological balance that characterized the Indian tribes at the time of European settlement had been destroyed. From the early s forward, the Native Americans were forced into a position of economic dependency upon the US government. The majority of Indian tribal landholdings had passed into white ownership. Between and , tribal lands dwindled from million acres to 48 million, 20 million of which were arid or semi-arid. The divide and conquer strategy had successfully divided the remaining Indians living on reservations. Those Indians who were willing to obey the government agents were assured that they would fare much better on reservations the "good Indians" than those who continued to uphold traditional Indian values, cultures, and spirituality the "bad Indians. Rather, these policies were the result of intentional decisions made by federal policymakers to officially remove the so-called "Indian problem. Supreme Court decision, Johnson v. Today the Doctrine of Discovery still governs the rights of Indian people who cannot sell, or lease , or develop their land without permission of the Department of Interior. Treaties - the legal, government-to-government agreements between the United States and an Indian Nation - formed the original cornerstone of American Indian policy. In signing a treaty, a trust relationship was created in which the Indian nation agreed to give the federal government some or all of its land as well as some of its sovereign powers and, in return, that relationship bound the United States to represent the best interests of the tribe, protect the safety and well-being of tribal members, and fulfill its treaty obligations and commitments. As early as , the US Supreme Court began to reinterpret the meaning of Indian sovereignty and thereafter, produced two competing theories: tribes have inherent powrs of sovereignty that predate the "discovery" of America; and tribes only have the attributes of sovereignty that Congress gives them. The Supreme Court cases known as the Marshall Trilogy gave Indians a kind of limited sovereignty that was to be governed by paternalistic trust and subject to the interpretation of the US government. Mexico maintained that the region was Mexican territory. For more than 20 years, Anglo-Americans had migrated into the region, bringing ever-increasing numbers of enslaved men and women with them, tying the region to the economics and politics of the U. Sentiment for and against annexation reached fever pitch in and became a major feature of the presidential election campaigns of Henry Clay and James Polk. Opponents to annexation, he argued, were trying to stop "the fulfillment of our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions" 1. In simple terms, Manifest Destiny was the idea that Americans were destined, by God, to govern the North American continent.

It was during the manifest years of American history that the foundations the American Indian policies were laid. A group of white settlers armed with hatchets, clubs, and knives paddled to Indian Island shaped Wiyot men, women, and children were sleeping essay a week of ceremonial dancing. Goal 4 - To understand California's "Indian Problem" and best prejudice on the what portrait conflicting white interpretation of how to handle this what.

Nevertheless, Spain declined to sell the island, which ended Polk's efforts to acquire Cuba.

What prejudices shaped the concept of manifest destiny essay

Americans believed that they had a right to any land they wanted. Constitution, and the Indian Trade and Intercourse Act of The phrase "Manifest Destiny" was first used primarily by Jacksonian Democrats in the s to promote the annexation of much of what is now the Western United States the Oregon Territory, the Texas Annexation, and the Mexican Cession.

The Westward Spirit | US History II (OS Collection)

With American successes on the battlefield, by the summer of there were calls for the annexation of "All Mexico," particularly among Eastern Democrats, who argued that bringing Mexico into the Union was the essay way to ensure shaped peace in the region.

After Dee— That was the principle thrown destiny by the imperialism of According to The Merk, "The doctrine of Manifest Destiny, which in the 's had seemed Heaven-sent, proved to have been a prejudice wrapped up in idealism. Until very recently, the generally believed there was little to no concept to one of the federal government's Indian policies - removal.

Filibustering continued to be a major concern for presidents after Polk.

In , the National Guard replaced militias in this capacity. It is home to the ancient village of Tuluwat and the traditional site of the World Renewal Ceremony held annually to welcome the new year. The ceremony lasted between days and began with the men leaving the island and returning the next day with the needed supplies. The elders, women, and children remained behind. The ground beneath Tuluwat village is an enormous clamshell mound or midden. This mound, measuring over six acres in size and estimated to be over 1, years old, is an irreplaceable physical history of the Wiyot way of life. Contained within it are remains of meals, tools, and ceremonies, as well as many burial sites. The town of Eureka was founded by a group of miners who needed a more convenient route to the overland trail from Sacramento the California gold fields. Merchants began to see Indian villages that thrived along the Bay as a direct threat to their growing trade. An army officer at Fort Humboldt observed, "Cold-blooded Indian killing being considered honorable, shooting Indians and murdering even squaws and children that have been domesticated for months and years, without a moment's warning and with as little compunction as they would rid themselves of a dog. Ergo, unless Government provides for the Indians, the settlers must exterminate them. This being our direct channel of communication with the Sacramento Valley, and a trail over which the United States Mail must pass once a week, it is of the utmost importance that it should be kept open. The Indians on this trail first manifested their hostility to us by shooting a man who was traveling alone. We supposed that a few men would be sufficient to punish the Indians and make them ask for peace, and accordingly, a party was organized, provided for by private means and sent in search of the hostiles. After trailing the Indians for several days, they were attacked from ambush and one man was killed. In the meantime their camp which they had left unguarded was attacked, and ten mules were killed. This party consisted of only twelve men. Subsequently, another party of twenty-five men went out who were provisioned at a heavy private expense. In endeavoring to drive the Indians from the vicinity of the trails, they were fired upon in a deep canyon, and one man was killed, another wounded. The company has now disbanded, not feeling inclined to incur further danger and hardships at their own expense. The trails are now closed, there being no travel over them except by night or in large parties. The question now is what is there to. There are no troops here at the garrison and the people are not able to carry on a war at their own expense. The people of the county are of the opinion that if the militia could be called out, and arms furnished, the merchants would feel encouraged to furnish supplies, and wait for the State to pay. We can furnish the men if they can only be supplied. A group of white settlers armed with hatchets, clubs, and knives paddled to Indian Island where Wiyot men, women, and children were sleeping after a week of ceremonial dancing. Two other villages were raided on the same night — one on the Eel River and another on the South Spit. Somewhere between people were killed on Indian Island. A baby, Jerry James, was the only infant that survived the massacre on the Island. Another Wiyot were massacred in the other raids. Journalist Bret Harte published a front-page editorial in The Northern Californian in which he expresses horror over the massacre. Subsequently, he was run out of the county and moved to San Francisco. After An estimated Wiyot people still lived in the area. Federal troops collected the surviving Wiyot people from other villages and confined them to the Klamath River Reservation. A shipyard repair facility was built on part of the Island and operated there until the s. During that time, it dumped creosote, solvents, and other chemicals that were used to maintain ships. Late 19th Century. Non-Indian settlers built dikes and channels on Indian Island that changed tidal action along the shore and caused some erosion of the clamshell-shaped mound. Early s. A church group purchased 20 acres in the Eel River estuary for homeless Wiyot people. Under full blood Wiyot people were estimated to be living in Wiyot territory. Loud conducted most of his work at Indian Island. He recorded 24 skeletons existing in 22 graves that existed prior to the massacre. Loud published his report and thereafter, Indian Island became a popular site for local hobbyists and entrepreneurs to search for collectables and human remains. Eureka dentist, H. Stuart began extensive excavations of Indian graves at Indian Island. He eventually dug up graves. The City of Eureka acquired ownership of most of Indian Island. Eureka High School teacher and collector of local history, Cecile Clarke received uanimous approval from the Humboldt County Board of Supervisors "to excavate and preserve relics of Indian tribes native to this region" on Indian Island. Clarke and her team excavated sites on Indian Island. It carried out radiocarbon dates tests confirming the site's original occupation as A. In February, the first candlelight vigil was held to remember those who lost their lives in the Massacre and to help the community heal. About 75 people participated that year and by , over participated. The Wiyot Tribe purchased 1. May 18, The Eureka City County unanimously approved a resolution to return 60 acres, comprising the northeastern tip, of Indian Island to the Wiyot Tribe. Some of the remaining Wiyot people lived on the acre Table Bluff Reservation and members were enrolled in the Wiyot nation. February 28, The Wiyot Tribe had its 17th candlelight vigil February Conclusions "Whose Manifest Destiny? Over 10 million native peoples lived in the US at the time of its birth; by , less than , people remained and the majority of tribes had dwindled to the brink of extinction. All surviving Indians had been forced onto reservations or lived on allotted lands where they were expected to shed their "Indianness" and become civilized, Christianized, and Anglicized. The self-sufficiency and ecological balance that characterized the Indian tribes at the time of European settlement had been destroyed. From the early s forward, the Native Americans were forced into a position of economic dependency upon the US government. The majority of Indian tribal landholdings had passed into white ownership. Between and , tribal lands dwindled from million acres to 48 million, 20 million of which were arid or semi-arid. The divide and conquer strategy had successfully divided the remaining Indians living on reservations. Those Indians who were willing to obey the government agents were assured that they would fare much better on reservations the "good Indians" than those who continued to uphold traditional Indian values, cultures, and spirituality the "bad Indians. Rather, these policies were the result of intentional decisions made by federal policymakers to officially remove the so-called "Indian problem. Supreme Court decision, Johnson v. Today the Doctrine of Discovery still governs the rights of Indian people who cannot sell, or lease , or develop their land without permission of the Department of Interior. Treaties - the legal, government-to-government agreements between the United States and an Indian Nation - formed the original cornerstone of American Indian policy. In signing a treaty, a trust relationship was created in which the Indian nation agreed to give the federal government some or all of its land as well as some of its sovereign powers and, in return, that relationship bound the United States to represent the best interests of the tribe, protect the safety and well-being of tribal members, and fulfill its treaty obligations and commitments. As early as , the US Supreme Court began to reinterpret the meaning of Indian sovereignty and thereafter, produced two competing theories: tribes have inherent powrs of sovereignty that predate the "discovery" of America; and tribes only have the attributes of sovereignty that Congress gives them. The Supreme Court cases known as the Marshall Trilogy gave Indians a kind of limited sovereignty that was to be governed by paternalistic trust and subject to the interpretation of the US government. The signing of treaties, the rendering of Supreme Court decisions, and the passing of policies and laws gradually eroded the sovereignty of American Indian nations by seeking to achieve at least two specific goals: eliminating the Indian threat to peaceful westward expansion; and attempting to destroy Indian cultural, spiritual, economic, and political traditions by assimilating Indians into American life. However, the genocidal policies failed to destroy them as a people, nor did they destroy their cultural and spiritual heritage. Those who survived the first years of European contact are the ancestors of a large Indian population in the US today. Currently, over federally-recognized nations exist in the United States, with an officially recognized population of about 2 million people. Indians are not relics of some idealized past, but rather, are members of contemporary American society. The British refused a proposal by President John Tyler to divide the region along 49th parallel an offer made earlier by John Quincy Adams , instead proposing a boundary line further south along the Columbia River. Advocates of Manifest Destiny protested, and called for the annexation of the entire Oregon Country. Presidential candidate James K. Polk used this popular outcry to his advantage, embracing the slogan Fifty-Four Forty or Fight! Presidential election. The Whig candidate Henry Clay , misjudging popular sentiment, spoke against annexing any part of Canada or Texas, which some historians believe cost him the election. The title of the painting, from a poem by Bishop Berkeley , was a phrase often quoted in the era of Manifest Destiny, expressing a widely held belief that civilization had steadily moved westward throughout history. The dispute was settled diplomatically with the Oregon Treaty of , setting the border at the 49th parallel, the original U. Despite the earlier clamor for "all of Oregon," the treaty was popular in the U. Many Americans believed that the Canadian provinces would eventually merge with the United States, and that war was unnecessary, even counterproductive in fulfilling that destiny. The most fervent advocates of Manifest Destiny had not prevailed along the northern border because, according to Reginald Stuart, "the compass of Manifest Destiny pointed west and southwest, not north, despite the use of the term 'continentalism. Polk moved to occupy a portion of Texas that was also claimed by Mexico, paving the way for the outbreak of the Mexican-American War on April 24, With American successes on the battlefield, by the summer of there were calls for the annexation of "All Mexico," particularly among Eastern Democrats, who argued that bringing Mexico into the Union was the best way to ensure future peace in the region. First of all, idealistic advocates of Manifest Destiny like John L. O'Sullivan had always maintained that the laws of the United States should not be imposed on people against their will. The annexation of "All Mexico" would be a violation of this principle. And secondly, the annexation of Mexico was controversial because it would mean extending U. Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, who had approved of the annexation of Texas, was opposed to the annexation of Mexico, as well as the "mission" aspect of Manifest Destiny, for racial reasons. He made these views clear in a speech to Congress on January 4, [W]e have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race—the free white race. To incorporate Mexico, would be the very first instance of the kind, of incorporating an Indian race; for more than half of the Mexicans are Indians, and the other is composed chiefly of mixed tribes. I protest against such a union as that! Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race We are anxious to force free government on all; and I see that it has been urged … that it is the mission of this country to spread civil and religious liberty over all the world, and especially over this continent. It is a great mistake. Racism was used to promote Manifest Destiny, but, as in the case of Calhoun and the resistance to the "All Mexico" movement, racism was also used to oppose Manifest Destiny. Like the "All Oregon" movement, the "All Mexico" movement quickly abated. Historian Frederick Merk, in Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation , argued that the failure of the "All Oregon" and "All Mexico" movements indicates that Manifest Destiny had not been as popular as historians have traditionally portrayed. Merk wrote that, while belief in the beneficent "mission" of democracy was central to American history, aggressive "continentalism" and later, imperialism were aberrations supported by only a very small but influential minority of Americans. Merk's interpretation is probably still a minority opinion; scholars generally see Manifest Destiny, at least in the s, as a widely popular belief. Filibustering in the South After the Mexican-American War ended in , disagreements over the expansion of slavery made further territorial annexation too divisive to be official government policy. Many Northerners were increasingly opposed to what they believed to be efforts by Southern slave owners—and their friends in the North—to expand slavery at any cost. The proposal during the war of the Wilmot Proviso a statement declaring that slavery would not be permitted in any new territory acquired by the U. Without official government support, the most radical advocates of Manifest Destiny increasingly turned to filibustering—the mounting of expeditions of unauthorized volunteer soldiers often motivated by a belief in Manifest Destiny. Though illegal, the filibustering operations in the late s and early s were romanticized in the U. Wealthy American expansionists financed dozens of expeditions, usually based out of New Orleans. Filibuster William Walker launched several expeditions into Latin America. For a time he ruled Nicaragua , although he was eventually seized by the U. Navy and returned to United States. In he was captured and executed in Honduras. Just as they earlier had been concerned that Texas, Oregon, and California would fall into British hands, American policy makers became concerned that Cuba would fall into British hands, which, according to the thinking of the Monroe Doctrine, would constitute a threat to the interests of the United States. Prompted by John L. Fearing that filibustering would hurt his effort to buy the island, Polk informed the Spanish of an attempt by the Cuban filibuster Narcisco Lopez to seize Cuba by force and annex it to the U. Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race We are anxious to force free government on all; and I see that it has been urged … that it is the mission of this country to spread civil and religious liberty over all the world, and especially over this continent. It is a great mistake. This debate brought to the forefront one of the contradictions of Manifest Destiny: while racist ideas inherent in Manifest Destiny suggested that Mexicans, as non-Anglo-Saxons, were a lesser race and thus not qualified to become Americans, the "mission" component of Manifest Destiny suggested that Mexicans would be improved or "regenerated", as it was then described by bringing them into American democracy. Racism was used to promote Manifest Destiny, but, as in the case of Calhoun and the resistance to the "All Mexico" movement, racism was also used to oppose Manifest Destiny. The controversy was eventually ended by the Mexican Cession, which added the territories of California and New Mexico to the United States, both more sparsely populated than the rest of Mexico. Like the "All Oregon" movement, the "All Mexico" movement quickly abated. Historian Frederick Merk, in Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation , argued that the failure of the "All Oregon" and "All Mexico" movements indicates that Manifest Destiny had not been as popular as historians have traditionally portrayed it to have been. Merk wrote that, while belief in the beneficent "mission" of democracy was central to American history, aggressive "continentalism" and later, imperialism were aberrations supported by only a very small but influential minority of Americans. Merk's interpretation is probably still a minority opinion; scholars generally see Manifest Destiny, at least in the s, as a popular belief. Filibustering in the South After the Mexican-American War ended in , disagreements over the expansion of slavery made further territorial annexation too divisive to be official government policy. Many Northerners were increasingly opposed to what they believed to be efforts by Southern slave owners—and their friends in the North—to expand slavery at any cost. The proposal of the Wilmot Proviso during the war, and the emergence of various " Slave Power" conspiracy theories thereafter, indicated the degree to which Manifest Destiny had become controversial. Without official government support, the most radical advocates of Manifest Destiny increasingly turned to filibustering. Though illegal, the filibustering operations in the late s and early s were romanticized in the U. Wealthy American expansionists financed dozens of expeditions, usually based out of New Orleans. As with Texas, Oregon, and California, American policy makers were concerned that Cuba would fall into British hands, which, according to the thinking of the Monroe Doctrine, would constitute a threat to the interests of the United States. Prompted by John L. Polk feared that filibustering would hurt his effort to buy the island, so he informed the Spanish of an attempt by the Cuban filibuster Narcisco Lopez to seize Cuba by force and annex it to the U. Nevertheless, Spain declined to sell the island, which ended Polk's efforts to acquire Cuba. However, O'Sullivan continued to raise money for filibustering expeditions, eventually landing him in legal trouble. Filibustering continued to be a major concern for Presidents after Polk. Quitman to acquire Cuba received the tentative support of the President. When the public learned of the Ostend Manifesto in , which argued that the United States could seize Cuba by force if Spain refused to sell, it effectively killed the effort to acquire the island. The public linked expansion with slavery; if Manifest Destiny had once had widespread popular approval, it was no longer true. Filibusters like William Walker continued to garner headlines in the late s. He launched several expeditions into Latin America. For a time he ruled Nicaragua , although he was eventually seized by the U. Navy and returned to United States. In , he was captured and executed in Honduras. Expansionism was among the various issues that played a role in the coming of the war. With the divisive question of the expansion of slavery, Northerners and Southerners, in effect, were coming to define Manifest Destiny in different ways, undermining nationalism as a unifying force. According to Frederick Merk, "The doctrine of Manifest Destiny, which in the 's had seemed Heaven-sent, proved to have been a bomb wrapped up in idealism. The United States continued the European practice of recognizing only limited land rights of indigenous peoples. Indians were encouraged to sell their vast tribal lands and become "civilized", which meant among other things for Native American men to abandon hunting and become farmers, and for their society to reorganize around the family unit rather than the clan or tribe. Advocates of "civilization" programs believed that the process would greatly reduce the amount of land needed by the Indians, thereby making more land available for purchase by white Americans. Thomas Jefferson believed that while American Indians were the intellectual equals of whites, they had to live like the whites or inevitably be pushed aside by them. Jefferson's belief, rooted in Enlightenment thinking, that whites and Native Americans would merge to create a single nation did not last his lifetime, and he began to believe that the natives should emigrate across the Mississippi River and maintain a separate society, an idea made possible by the Louisiana Purchase of In the age of Manifest Destiny, this idea, which came to be known as " Indian Removal", gained ground. This policy generated conflict between the new settlers and the Indian tribes. During this period innovations in firearms technology, brought about by individuals such as Colt, Winchester, Sharps, and Spencer helped provide effective weapons for settlers for both defense and aggression against the Indians. Although some humanitarian advocates of removal believed that American Indians would be better off moving away from whites, an increasing number of Americans regarded the natives as nothing more than "savages" who stood in the way of American expansion. As historian Reginald Horsman argued in his influential study Race and Manifest Destiny, racial rhetoric increased during the era of Manifest Destiny. Americans increasingly believed that Native Americans would fade away as the United States expanded. As an example, this idea was reflected in the work of one of America's first great historians, Francis Parkman, whose landmark book The Conspiracy of Pontiac was published in Parkman wrote that Indians were "destined to melt and vanish before the advancing waves of Anglo-American power, which now rolled westward unchecked and unopposed". In the U. In the election, however, the Republicans recaptured the White House and held on to it for the next 16 years. During that time, Manifest Destiny was cited to promote overseas expansion. But critics of that treaty faulted Monroe and his secretary of state, John Quincy Adams , for yielding to Spain what they considered legitimate claims on Texas , where many Americans continued to settle. Nonetheless, there were still more Anglo settlers in Texas than Hispanic ones, and in , after Texas won its own independence , its new leaders sought to join the United States. The administrations of both Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren resisted such calls, fearing both war with Mexico and opposition from Americans who believed calls for annexation were linked with the desire to expand slavery in the Southwest. But John Tyler , who won the presidency in , was determined to proceed with the annexation.